Volume 12 Supplement 7
Phage Eco-Locator: a web tool for visualization and analysis of phage genomes in metagenomic data sets
© Aziz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Published: 5 August 2011
Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, and their nucleic acids constitute a substantial proportion of total DNA in Earth's ecosystems [1, 2]. While the advent of metagenomic methods has allowed the rapid and efficient investigation of microbial and viral communities [3–5], there has not been a comprehensive comparative analysis of phage genes and genomes present in all sequenced ecosystems [6, 7]. To examine the abundance and distribution of phage genes in environmental metagenomic sequences, we developed a web-based tool, Phage Eco-Locator [http://www.phantome.org/eco-locator] that screens all publicly available sequenced metagenomes for a user-defined phage genome, or all phage genomes within a user-selected metagenomic sample.
Materials and methods
All 588 phage genomes available in the PhAnToMe database [http://www.phantome.org] (as of January 1, 2011) were screened against 296 de-replicated metagenomic libraries. The graphical output was translated into metrics representing phage abundance, extent and breadth of distribution, and coverage density and evenness. Applying these metrics to all samples demonstrated a pervasive, yet uneven, distribution of phage genes in metagenomic libraries and allowed the separation of phage genomes into distinct groups. The analyses also showed a tendency for phage genomes to prevail in environments similar to their original isolation source, where their bacterial hosts are expected to thrive (e.g., cyanophages in aquatic samples and halophages in hypersaline environments).
Phage Eco-Locator effectively allows the global analysis of all phage sequences in metagenomes while also permitting gene-level analysis of individual phage genomes. In the future, application of this tool to sequences from a wide range of ecosystems will enhance our understanding of the factors controlling phage biogeography and environmental selection.
This work was supported by the PhAnToMe grant from the NSF Division of Biological Infrastructure to RAE (NSF DBI-0850356) and MB (NSF DBI-0850206).
- Bergh O, Børsheim KY, Bratbak G, Heldal M: High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments. Nature 1989, 340: 467–468.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang SC, Paul JH: Gene transfer by transduction in the marine environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 1998, 64: 2780–2787.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Handelsman J: Metagenomics: application of genomics to uncultured microorganisms. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2004, 68: 669–685.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Casas V, Rohwer F: Phage metagenomics. Methods Enzymol 2007, 421: 259–268.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schoenfeld T, Liles M, Wommack KE, Polson SW, Godiska R, Mead D: Functional viral metagenomics and the next generation of molecular tools. Trends Microbiol 2010, 18: 20–29.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Edwards RA, Rohwer F: Viral metagenomics. Nat Rev Microbiol 2005, 3: 504–510.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Breitbart M, Rohwer F: Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus? Trends Microbiol 2005, 13: 278–284.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ: Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 1997, 25: 3389–3402.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.