Illustration of our assignment technique for the phylogeny-based methods. X denotes the query sequence to assign, and individuals 1_x or 2_x belong respectively to species 1 or 2. In case A, the sister group (1_1, 1_3, 2_1) of X contains a majority of individuals of species 1, thus X is assigned to species 1. In case B, the sister group (1_1, 1_3, 2_1, 2_4) of X contains an equal number of individuals of species 1 and 2, thus we have to consider the sister group at the upper level (one node above), this group is (1_1, 1_3, 2_1, 2_4, 1_2) and contains a majority of species 1 individuals. X is thus assigned to species 1.