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Table 2 Scope and sample indexing of the MeSH qualifiers used in our study. The five MeSH qualifiers relevant to this study are listed, from the 83 available. Scope notes are taken from the Chapter 19 of the MeSH Indexing Manual

From: The "etiome": identification and clustering of human disease etiological factors

MeSH Qualifier Scope Note Example indexing
(MeSH subject Heading/qualifier)
Chemically induced (chem ind) "Used for biological phenomena, diseases, syndromes, congenital abnormalities, or symptoms caused by endogenous or exogenous substances." Indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer:
Peptic Ulcer/chem ind
Indomethacin/adv eff
"Used with diseases to indicate conditions that co-exist or follow, i.e., co-existing diseases, complications, or sequelae." If disease A causes disease B, this will be indexed as
Disease A/compl
Disease B/etiol
If it is not known whether disease A causes disease B or disease B causes disease A, the article will be indexed as
Disease A/compl
Disease B/compl
Adverse Effects
(adv eff)
"Used with drugs, chemicals, or biological agents in accepted dosage – or with physical agents or manufactured products in normal usage – when intended for diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, or anesthetic purposes. It is used also for adverse effects or complications of diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, anesthetic, surgical, or other procedures, but excludes contraindications for which "contraindications" is used." Hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen given for fever:
Acetaminophen/adv eff/ther use
Liver Diseases/chem ind
Fever/drug ther
"Used with drugs and chemicals for experimental human and animal studies of their ill effects. It includes studies to determine the margin of safety or the reactions accompanying administration at various dose levels. It is used also for exposure to environmental agents. Poisoning should be considered for life-threatening exposure to environmental agents." Cocaine induced cardiomyopathies:
Cardiomyopathies/chem ind
"Used with drugs, chemicals, and industrial materials for human or animal poisoning, acute or chronic, whether the poisoning is accidental, occupational, suicidal, by medication error, or by environmental exposure." Acidosis due to ethylene glycol poisoning:
Acidosis/chem. ind
Ethylene Glycol/pois