An example of a mutation operation for CTPP primer design. At the beginning, a P
= (25, 118, 23, 24, 256, 25) is randomly selected from the offsprings. Then one mutation point of the position Fl 1, Pl 1, Rl 1, Fl 2, Pl 2or Rl 2is randomly generated. In our example the position the mutation point is Fl 2. Then a random value between 16 and 28 of Fl 2is generated. This value replaces the corresponding variable value in P
. Finally, the new offspring P'
= (25, 118, 23, 25, 256, 25) is generated.