Outline of the ipPCA framework. The framework consists of three main components. First, the genetic data are encoded, zero-means centered and normalized. Then, individuals are projected onto a space spanned by the principal components of the input data matrix. Next, a structure metric is calculated to decide whether to advance to the clustering step or to terminate the algorithm. When the metric does not cross the threshold, a homogenous subpopulation is resolved and subsequently the algorithm terminates. Otherwise, the individuals are bisected. The algorithm iterates until all individuals have been assigned into terminal subpopulations.