Human-rhesus macaque time shift analyzed by DTW-S. (A) Four patterns of time shift between human and rhesus macaque expression time series, showing high time shift profile correlation (r: 0.5~1) between cortex and cerebellum. The time shift was calculated by aligning rhesus expression time series to human time series. The numbers above the graphs represent numbers of genes within each cluster. The graphs show mean time shift of all genes within a cluster (points) and the time shift interval for individual genes within a cluster (5%-95%). Positive values of time shift indicate that human ages are mapped to younger ages in the rhesus macaque time series, indicating slower/delayed human development. Time shift shown on the y-axis is calculated as the base-two logarithm ratio between rhesus macaque age and human age at aligned expression time points. (B) Patterns of expression profiles of human genes in the time shift Cluster1 and Cluster2 shown in (A). The numbers above each graph represent genes within a group. The graphs show mean expression of all genes within a group (points) and expression level variance (error bars) for individual genes within a cluster (5%-95%). (C) Properties of genes in the time shift Cluster1 and Cluster2. The left and the right panels show the proportions of genes in each of the four groups of Cluster1, and Cluster2 respectively, that overlap with genes with expression specific to gray matter, white matter or non-specific.