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Table 1 Examples of effects of gut microbes on drugs

From: PharmacoMicrobiomics or how bugs modulate drugs: an educational initiative to explore the effects of human microbiome on drugs

CID Drug Body Site Microbial effects NCBI PMID
64982 Baicalin [Potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and liver tonic] Gut Gut microbes hydrolyze baicalin and enhance its absorption. Absence of gut microbiota resulted in lower levels of baicalin in plasma following oral administration [8]. 11197087
2724385 Digoxin [Cardiac glycoside] Gut Eubacterium lentum is responsible for the difference in metabolite concentration of digoxin between North Americans and Southern Indians [9] 2759492
1794427 Chlorogenic acid [Antioxidant] Gut Variation in gut microbiome alters chlorogenic acid metabolism [10]. 12771329
1983 Acetaminophen [Analgesic and antipyretic] Gut Acetaminophen toxicity is associated with elevated levels of p-cresol produced by some bacterial communities [4]. 19667173
9064 (+)- catechin and (-)-epichatechins [Anti-oxidants] Gut In germ-free rats, (+)-catechins and (-)-epicatechins resulted in increase in the levels of liver CYP450 2C11, and (+) catechins caused elevation in the specific activity of liver UGT-Chloramphenicol [11]. 12659723
5734 Zonisamide [Anticonvulsant] Gut Gut microbiota reduce zonisamide into 2-sulfomoyacetylphenol. Levels of 2-sulfomoyacetylphenol reportedly increased upon re-inoculation of germ-free rats with gut microbiota [12] 9231340