Skip to main content

Table 1 Selected examples of published associations with hypothesis-free testing of metabolite ratios

From: On the hypothesis-free testing of metabolite ratios in genome-wide and metabolome-wide association studies

Metabolite ratio Association Interpretation Reference
SM(OH)C28:0/SM(OH)C26:0 Diabetic (db/db) versus wild type mice Increased beta-oxidation in diabetic mice Altmaier et al., Endocrinology, 2008
PC aa C36:3/PC aa C36:4 FADS1 genotype Genetic variance in delta-5 fatty acid desaturation Gieger et al., PLoS Genetics, 2008
PC aa Cx:y/PC ae Cx:y Smoking Reduced or lack of activity of the enzyme alkyl-DHAP in smokers Wang-Sattler et al., PLoS One, 2008
PC aa C40:3/PC aa C42:5 ELOVL2 genotype Genetic variance in elongation of fatty acids Illig et al., Nature Genetics, 2010
Medium chain fatty acids / long chain fatty acids Diabetes state Perturbed lipid metabolism associated with diabetes Suhre et al., PLoS One, 2010
PC aa C40:5/PC aa C40:6 Self-reported nutritional intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids Confirmation of questionnaire based life-style parameters Altmaier et al., Eur. J. Endocrinology, 2011
Ratios between phospholipids with lipid side chains from the C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1 pool and C20:3, C20:4, C22:4 PUFAs Plasma, tissue (mouse) and cell lines (human) treated with FABP4 inhibitor Molecular inhibition of FABP4 activity Suhre et al., J Biomol Screen, 2011
Formate/ acetate in human urine NAT2 genotype Genetic variance in N-acetylase activity Suhre et al., Nature Genetics, 2011
Ratio between phosphorylated and unphosphorylated fibrinogen peptides ABO, ALPL, and FUT2 genotypes Genetic variance in fibrinogen phosphorylation Suhre et al., Nature, 2011
  1. In all studies pairs of metabolites were identified by a high increase in the strength of association when ratios were used. Note that all of these metabolite pairs are found to be biochemically related to the concrete biological questions of these studies (Interpretation). However, they were singled out from the large number of all possible metabolite pair combinations on the basis of the p-gain without any prior hypotheses.