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Table 1 Heart rate representation issues and their ontological description

From: Process attributes in bio-ontologies

Problem Representation Comments
1.a. Normal heart rate for a 30 year-old HeartCycleFrequencyAttribute and (isProcessAttributeOf only (SixtySecondHeartBeatingProcess and (hasPart min 60 HeartCycle) and (hasPart max 100 HeartCycle))) The model allowed proper representation and automatic classification of those classes. Such representation can be done through fully defined classes – therefore precluding the need of process attributes
1.b. Fast heart rate for a 30 year-old HeartCycleFrequencyAttribute and (isProcessAttributeOf some (SixtySecondHeartBeatingProcess and (hasNumberOfGrains only int[> 100])))  
2.a. Patient with bradycardia BradycardiacPatient equivalentTo Human and (hasPart some (Heart and participatesIn some (HeartBeatingProcess and hasProcessAttribute some SlowHeartRate)))  
2.b. Administered drugs that cause heart frequency increase TachycardicEffect equivalentTo DrugFunction and (inheresIn some (Drug and participatesIn some (TherapeuticMedicationAdministration and precedes some (HeartBeatingProcess and hasProcessAttribute some AcceleratingHeartBeating))))  
2.c. Query a triple store for diseases that co-occur with some arrhythmia SELECT ?Disease WHERE ?ParticularDisease isInstanceOf ?Disease.?ParticularDisease inheresIn ?Human.?Human hasPart ?Heart. ?Heart participatesIn ?HeartBeatingProcess. ?HeartBeatingProcess hasProcessAttribute ?ProcessAttribute. ?ProcessAttribute isInstanceOf ArrhithmicHeartRate.  
3.a. "Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (diagnosis)" AtrialFibrilationHeartBeating equivalentTo HeartBeatingProcess and (hasPart only AtrialFibrilationCycle) and hasNumberOfGrains some integer [>1] SANodeHeartBeating equivalentTo HeartBeatingProcess and (hasPart only SANodeStartedHeartCycle) and hasNumberOfGrains some integer [>1] IntermitentAtrialFibrilationAttribute equivalentTo isProcessAttributeOf some (HeartBeatingProcess and (hasPart min 2 AtrialFibrilationHeartBeating) and (hasPart some SANodeHeartBeating)) Atrial fibrillation can be modelled as a collection of atrial fibrillation cycles, in which the atrial contraction is not regulated by the SA node.
The paroxysmal can be modelled as a process attribute of processes that have as part more than 1 instance of the same type of process.
3.b. "Regular cardiac rhythm" (x)(y)(z) (HeartBeating(x) Λ HeartCycle(y) Λ HeartCycle(z) Λ has_attribute(x, Invariant_heart_cycle_period) Λ (y ≠ z) Λ partOf(y,x) Λ partOf(z,x)→ durationOf(y) = durationOf(z)) Fully defined in FOL by stating that the duration of each cycle part of the heart beating has the same duration as any other cycle part of the heart beating.
3.c. "sudden onset of palpitation" hasProcessAttribute some (NormalHeartRate and precedes some AcceleratingHeartBeating) Palpitation will require some primitive as acceleration has been shown as difficult to represent in OWL. However, the “sudden” can be expressed as a process attribute “normal heart rate” that precedes an acceleration attribute, and the time instant of the end boundary of the former is the same as the time instant of the initial boundary of the latter.
3.d. "History of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia" isAbout some HeartBeatingProcess and (hasProcessAttribute some HighHeartRate) and (hasPart only SANodeStartedHeartCycle) History can be expressed reusing IAO relation “is About”.
3.e. "no atrium-ventricular or intra-ventricular conduction abnormalities (EKG finding)" isAbout some HeartBeatingProcess and (hasProcessAttribute only NormalHeartRate) and (hasProcessAttribute only InvariantHeartCyclePeriod) and (hasPart only SANodeStartedHeartCycle) See 3.b and 3.d.
3.f. "chronic atrial fibrillation (diagnosis)" isAbout some ChronicAtrialFibrilationAttribute ChronicAtrialFibrilationAttribute equivalentTo isProcessAttributeOf some (HeartBeatingProcess and (hasPart only AtrialFibrilationCycle)) Similar to 3.a, but in this case the beating has only atrial fibrillation cycles as part.