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Table 2 Most frequent genetic elements observed and proposed screening combinations in major food and feed crops

From: The GMOseek matrix: a decision support tool for optimizing the detection of genetically modified plants

  All GMOs from plant origin worldwide GMOs from plant origin relevant to EU regulations
Crop species Most frequent genetic elements Frequency Proposed screening (coverage) Most frequent genetic elements Frequency Proposed screening (coverage)
Rapeseed tNOS 39% pTa29 (or pSsuAra or pSsuAra-bar) tNOS 75%  
bar 39% p35S, cp4-epsps bar 75% tNOS , p35S, CTP2-cp4epsps (or tE9)
pSsuAra 39%   pSsuAra/pTa29 75%  
pTa29 39%     
pSsuAra-bar 39%   pSsuAra-bar 75%  
p35S 29%     
tg7 29%   tg7 75%  
barstar 29%   barstar 58%  
barnase 29% (25/31 - 81%) a CTP2-cp4epsps pTa29-barnase 58% (12/12 - 100%)
Soybean p35S 38% p35S, tE9, cp4-epsps, tNOS, pat, p35S 44% p35S, pFMV
  tE9 33% cryIAc cp4epsps 33%  
  cp4-epsps 33%   CTP2-cp4epsps 22%  
  pFMV (pCmoVb) 24%   pat 22%  
  CTP2-cp4epsps 24%   tE9 22%  
  tNOS 24% (18/21 - 86%) b pFMV (pCmoVb) 22% (6/9 - 66%) g
Maize p35S 80% p35S, tNOS, pat p35S 85% p35S, tNOS
  tNOS 74%   tNOS 79%  
  t35S 60%   pActin1 52%  
  pat 56%   pat 39%  
  35S-pat 51%   35S-pat 39%  
  pActin1 42% (116/126 - 92%) c cp4-epsps 36% (33/33 - 100%)
Cotton p35S 57% p35S, pat, cry1Ac, nptII, m-epsps p35S 64% p35S, pat (or pUbiZM1), m-epsps
  tNOS 50%   tNOS 55%  
  cry1Ac 43%   cry1Ac 55%  
  nptII 35%   aad 45%  
  aad 33%   nptII 45%  
  t7S 22% (39/46 - 85%) d 35S-nptII 45% (11/11 - 100%)
Potato tNOS 88% tNOS    EH92-527-1 is the only authorized potato
  tE9 38%     event: no need for screening
  nptII 69%     
  cry3A 69%     
  p35S 50% (13/15 - 87%) e    
Rice p35S 29% p35S, tNOS, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, CryIaB /    LL62 is the only rice that can be found in
  tNOS 21% CryIac, pUbiZM1, m-epsps, tNOS    EU (LLP regulation): no need for screening
  cry1Ab 19%     
  cry1Ac 17%     
  cryIaB / cryIac 17%     
  pUbiZM1 14%     
  bar 14% (27/42 - 64%) f    
  1. Most frequent genetic elements: The most frequent genetic elements in the major food and feed GM crop species worldwide (on the left) and for the GM events pertaining to the EU regulations (on the right). Frequency: The relative frequencies of each element respectively to all GMO of the same crop species, given as a percentage. Proposed screening (coverage): proposed combination of GM elements in order to achieve a good coverage (at least 50%) of all GM events in the crop species. The coverage is indicated by bold letters in brackets, as the ratio of detected GM events out of all currently known GM events.
  2. Non-usable elements (short elements like leaders, plasmid t-DNA, elements originating from the same species) were not taken into consideration. Non-authorized and therefore non-covered events are marked by a event 73496; b 305423 and BPS‒CV127‒9; c 3751IR, 3243M, LY038, DAS-40278-9, HCEM485, 32138 and BVLA430101; d 1849, 19-51A, China cotton 1, China cotton 2, China cotton 3, GK12 and SGK321; e tBK50-13 and tBK50-60; f Kinuhikari 2, Zhuxian B, 86AB1, 86AS2, Bt-IR72, KA130, Kinuhikari 1, Nihonbare 16-2, Nihonbare 20-2, 21-3, Minghui 86a, Minghui 86b, PWC16, Tsuki-no-hikari H39 and H75. Some of the non-covered events can be detected by event specific assays validated by the European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF, http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/statusofdoss.htm).