Sample size estimation without experimental pilot data using the PPCA model. In each panel is the estimated FDR (solid red lines) as well as the 10th and 90th percentiles (dashed red lines). A horizontal dashed black line is the target FDR at 5%. (A) The sample size is estimated to be 30 with 15 samples in each treatment group. (B-D) show the effect of varying the proportion of significant bins over a range of sample sizes.