From: An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining
Category | Name | Description | Unit | reference |
---|---|---|---|---|
PK parameters | AUC_{inf} | Area under the drug concentration time curve. | mg h L^{-1} | RT p37 |
AUC_{SS} | Area under the drug concentration time curve within a dosing curve at steady state. | mg h L^{-1} | RT pxi | |
AUC_{t} | Area under the drug concentration time curve from time 0 to t. | mg h L^{-1} | RT p37 | |
AUMC | Area under the first moment of concentration versus time curve. | mg^{2} h L^{-2} | RT p486 | |
AUCR | AUC ratio (drug interaction parameter). | Unit free | ||
CL | Total clearance is defined as the proportionality factor relating rate of drug elimination to the plasma drug concentration. | ml h^{-1} | RT p23 | |
CL_{b} | Blood clearance is defined as the proportionality factor relating rate of drug elimination to the blood drug concentration. | ml h^{-1} | RT p160 | |
CL_{u} | Unbound clearance is defined as the proportionality factor relating rate of drug elimination to the unbounded plasma drug concentration. | ml h^{-1} | RT p163 | |
CL_{H} | Hepatic portion of the total clearance. | ml h^{-1} | RT p161 | |
CL_{R} | Renal portion of the total clearance. | ml h^{-1} | RT p161 | |
CL_{po} | Total clearance of drug following an oral dose. | ml h^{-1} | ||
CL_{IV} | Total clearance of drug following an IV dose. | ml h^{-1} | ||
CL_{int} | Intrinsic metabolic clearance is defined as ratio of maximum metabolism rate, Vmax, and the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km. | ml h^{-1} | RT p165 | |
CL_{12} | Inter-compartment distribution between the central compartment and the peripheral compartment. | ml h^{-1} | ||
CL ratio | Ratio of the clearance (drug interaction parameter). | Unit free | ||
C_{max} | Highest drug concentration observed in plasma following administration of an extravascular dose. | mg L^{-1} | RT pxii | |
C_{max} ratio | The ratio of C_{max} (drug interaction parameter). | Unit free | ||
C_{ss} | Concentration of drug in plasma at steady state during a constant rate intravenous infusion. | mg L^{-1} | RT pxii | |
C_{ss} ratio | The ratio of C_{ss} (drug interaction parameter). | Unit free | ||
E | Extraction ratio is defined as the ratio between blood clearance, CL_{b}, and the blood flow. | Unit free | RT p159 | |
E_{H} | Hepatic extraction ratio. | Unit free | RT p161 | |
F | Bioavailability is defined as the proportion of the drug reaches the systemic blood. | Unit free | RT p42 | |
F_{G} | Gut-wall bioavailability. | Unit free | ||
F_{H} | Hepatic bioavailability. | Unit free | RT p167 | |
F_{R} | Renal bioavailability. | Unit free | RT p170 | |
fe | Fraction of drug systemically available that is excreted unchanged in urine. | Unit free | RT pxiii | |
fm | Fraction of drug systemically available that is converted to a metabolite. | Unit free | RT pxiii | |
fu | Ratio of unbound and total drug concentrations in plasma. | Unit free | RT pxiii | |
k | Elimination rate constant. | h^{-1} | RT pxiii | |
K_{12}, k_{21} | Distribution rate constants between central compartment and peripheral compartment. | h^{-1} | ||
ka | Absorption rate constant. | h^{-1} | RT pxiii | |
ke | Urinary excretion rate constant. | h^{-1} | RT pxiii | |
km | Rate constant for the elimination of a metabolite. | h^{-1} | RT pxiii | |
Km | Michaelis-Menten constant. | mg L^{-1} | RT pxiii | |
MRT | Mean time a molecular resides in body. | h | RT pxiv | |
Q | Blood flow. | L h^{-1} | RT pxiv | |
Q_{H} | Hepatic blood flow. | L h^{-1} | RT pxiv | |
t_{max} | Time at which the highest drug concentration occurs following administration of an extravascular dose. | h | RT pxiv | |
t_{1/2} | Half-life of the drug disposition. | h | RT pxiv | |
t_{1/2} ratio | Half-life ratio (drug interaction parameter). | Unit free | ||
t_{1/2,α} | Half-life of the fast phase drug disposition. | h | ||
t_{1/2,β} | Half-life of the slow phase drug disposition. | h | ||
V | Volume of distribution based on drug concentration in plasma. | L | RT pxiv | |
V_{b} | Volume of distribution based on drug concentration in blood. | L | RT pxiv | |
V_{1} | Volume of distribution of the central compartment. | L | RT pxiv | |
V_{2} | Volume of distribution of the peripheral compartment. | L | ||
V_{ss} | Volume of distribution under the steady state concentration. | L | RT pxiv | |
Vmax | Maximum rate of metabolism by an enzymatically mediated reaction. | mg h^{-1} | RT pxiv | |
λ_{1}, λ_{2} | Disposition rate constants in a two-compartment model. | h^{-1} | GP p84 | |
Pharmacokinetics Models | Non-Compartment | Use drug concentration measurements directly to estimate PK parameters, such as AUC, CL, C_{max}, T_{max}, t_{1/2}, F, and V. | GP p409 | |
One Compartment Model | It assumes the whole body is a homogeneous compartment, and the distribution of the drug from the blood to tissue is very fast. It assumes either a first order or a zero order absorption rate and a first order eliminate rate. Its PK parameters include (ka, V, CL, F). | RT p34 | ||
GP p1 | ||||
Two Compartment Model | It assumes the whole body can be divided into two compartments: central compartment (i.e. systemic compartment) and peripheral compartment (i.e. tissue compartment). It assumes either a first order or a zero order absorption rate and a first order eliminate and distribution rates. Its PK parameters include (ka, V_{1}, V_{2}, CL, CL_{12}, F). | GP p84 | ||
Study Designs | Hypothesis | Bioequivalence, drug interaction, pharmacogenetics, and disease conditions. | ||
Design | Single arm or multiple arms; cross-over or fixed order design; with or without randomization; with or without stratification; prescreening or no-prescreening; prospective or retrospective studies; and case reports or cohort studies. | |||
Sample size | The number of subjects, and the number of plasma or urine samples per subject. | |||
Time points | Sampling time points and dosing time points. | |||
Sample types | Blood, plasma, and urine. | |||
Dose | Subject specific doses. | |||
Quantification methods | HPLC/UV, LC/MS/MS, LC/MS, radiographic |