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Table 9 Examples of DDI definitions

From: An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining

PMID DDI sentence Relationship and commend
20012601 The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil were significantly altered by the co-administration of lovastatin compared to the control. Because of the words, “significantly”, (Verapamil, lovastatin) is a DDI.
20209646 The clearance of mitoxantrone and etoposide was decreased by 64% and 60%, respectively, when combined with valspodar. Because of the fold changes were less than 0.67, (mitoxantrone, valspodar.) and (etoposide, valspodar) are DDIs.
20012601 The (AUC (0-infinity)) of norverapamil and the terminal half-life of verapamil did not significantly changed with lovastatin coadministration. Because of the words, “not significantly changed”, (verapamil, ovastatin) is a NDDI.
17304149 Compared with placebo, itraconazole treatment significantly increase the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of paroxetine by 1.3 fold (6.7 2.5 versus 9.0 3.3 ng/mL, P≤0.05) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 48 hours [AUC( 0- 48)] of paroxetine by 1.5 fold (137 73 versus 199 91 ng*h/mL, P≤0.01). AUC has a higher rank than Cmax, and it had a 1.5 fold-change and less than 0.05 p-value, thus, (itraconazole, paroxetine) is a DDI.
13129991 The mean (SD) urinary ratio of dextromethorphan to its metabolite was 0.006 (0.010) at baseline and 0.014 (0.025) after St John’s wort administration (P=.26) The change in PK parameter is more than 1.5 fold but P-value is >0.05. Thus, (dextromethorphan, St John’s wort) is an ADDI.
19904008 The obtained results show that perazine at its therapeutic concentrations is a potent inhibitor of human CYP1A2. Because of words, “potent inhibitor”, (perazine, CYP1A2) is a DEI.
19230594 After human hepatocytes were exposed to 10 microM YM758, microsomal activity and mRNA level for CYP1A2 were not induced while those for CYP3A4 were slightly induced. Because of words, “not induced” and “slightly induced”, (YM758, CYP1A2) and (YM758, CYP1A2) are NDEIs.
19960413 From these results, DPT was characterized to be a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, with K(i) values of 3.5 and 10.8 microM in HLM and 24.9 and 3.5 microM in baculovirus-insect cell-expressed human CYPs, respectively. Because K was larger than 10microM, (DPT, CYP2C9) and (DPT, CYP3A4) are ADEIs.