0.05). The protection level of RB51 was sacrificed when the values of several variables (e.g., vaccination route, vaccine viability, and challenge pathogen strain) change. It is suggestive that it is difficult to protect against aerosol challenge. Somewhat counter-intuitively, our results indicate that intraperitoneal and subcutaneous vaccinations are much more effective to protect against aerosol Brucella challenge than intranasal vaccination. Conclusions Literature meta-analysis identified variables that significantly contribute to Brucella vaccine protection efficacy. The results obtained provide critical information for rational vaccine study design. Literature meta-analysis is generic and can be applied to analyze variables critical for vaccine protection against other infectious diseases."/>
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Table 1 ANOVA results of 19 variables contributing to Brucella vaccine protection efficacy

From: Meta-analysis of variables affecting mouse protection efficacy of whole organism Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates

# Variables Df Sum Square Mean Square F value P-value (>F)
Variables with statistically significant contribution to protection (P-value < 0.05)
1 CFU Reduction 1 4.32 4.32 58.66 1.574E-13
2 Pathogen challenge route 1 2.20 2.20 29.90 8.278E-08
3 Vaccine dose 1 1.77 1.77 24.09 1.369E-06
4 CFU in spleen 1 0.92 0.92 12.49 4.591E-04
5 Challenge Pathogen Strain 1 0.85 0.85 11.54 0.0008
6 Mouse strain 1 0.58 0.58 7.86 0.0053
7 Vaccine strain 1 0.41 0.41 5.56 0.0188
8 Vaccination route 1 0.41 0.41 5.54 0.0190
9 Challenge-killing Interval 1 0.38 0.38 5.19 0.0232
Variables without statistically significant contribution to protection (P-value > 0.05)
10 Vaccination Frequency 1 0.27 0.27 3.61 0.0581
11 Adjuvant 1 0.18 0.18 2.41 0.1215
12 Vaccination Challenge Interval 1 0.16 0.16 2.20 0.1385
13 Gene Mutation 1 0.12 0.12 1.68 0.1951
14 Mouse Age at Vaccination 1 0.07 0.07 0.97 0.3244
15 Sample Size 1 0.03 0.03 0.47 0.4928
16 Vaccine viability 1 0.02 0.02 0.34 0.5612
17 Antigen Overexpression 1 0.02 0.02 0.23 0.6299
18 Mouse Sex 1 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.7499
19 Challenge Dose 1 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.7988
  1. Note: Nine variables were found to play a significant role (P-value < 0.05), and 10 variables were found not. Df: degree of freedom.