Separation value between true and false parent-offspring relations. The separation value is the difference between the smallest number of opposing homozygotes found across all false sire-offspring relations (i.e. all pairwise combinations except the real sire-offspring pairs) and the maximum number of opposing homozygotes in the correct sire-offspring pairs divided by the maximum number of opposing homozygotes found in the dataset. Positive values allow reliable identification and exclusion of parent-offspring relationships. The figure shows sorted pair-wise combinations of opposing homozygotes for 326 Hanwoo cattle genotyped on the Illumina 700 k BeadChip (290 offspring and their 36 sires); true sire-offspring relations in black and false in red. The jagged line shows a cut off threshold of 1% genotyping errors.