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Table 1 Global regulators and their regulated operons and functions in the regulatory network of E. coli.

From: Hierarchical structure and modules in the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory network revealed by a new top-down approach

Global regulator directly regulated Operons Total regulated operons Modules regulated Function
IHF 21 39 15 integration host factor
CspA 2 24 5 Cold shock protein
CRP 72 112 21 cAMP receptor protein
FNR 22 38 16 anaerobic regulator, regulatory gene for nitrite and nitrate reductases, fumarate reductase
HNS 7 22 5 DNA-binding global regulator; involved in chromosome organization; preferentially binds bent DNA
OmpR 6 20 3 Response regulator for osmoregulation; regulates production of membrane proteins
RpoN 12 17 4 RNA polymerase sigma 54 subunit
RpoS 14 24 8 stationary phase sigma factor
ArcA 20 21 6 Response regulator protein represses aerobic genes under anaerobic growth conditions and activates some anaerobic genes
NarL 13 15 5 Two-component regulator protein for nitrate/nitrite response