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Table 1 Simulation of independent data. Denote by N(μ, σ) a normal distribution with mean μ and standard deviation σ. For each DEG one of the above three scenarios was chosen with equal probabilities. For the rest both groups follow the same distribution chosen randomly from the 'Group 1' column. The scenarios are such that the power to detect the regulation with a 5% two-sided t-test ranges from small to large given two groups of size four.

From: A comparative review of estimates of the proportion unchanged genes and the false discovery rate

Scenario Group 1 Group 2 Power
1 N(6, 0.1) N(6.1, 0.1) 0.19
2 N(8, 0.2) N(8.5, 0.2) 0.79
3 N(10, 0.4) N(11, 0.7) 0.47