Year first published
No. PubMed Publications Involving Orphan
Positive reports of evaluation as a drug target against Trypanosome; trypanocidal activity has been reported; involved in 2-dehydro-D-gluconate degradation pathway
Activity is present in lower eukaryotes, plants, and multiple mammalian tissues
Heparosan-N- sulfate-glucuronate 5-epimerase
Involved in the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate, which binds proteins to modulate signaling events in embryogenesis. Mouse gene knock-out results in late lethal phenotype.
Correction added in proof: Thanks to a comment by Dr. K. Robison and research by Dr. A. Shearer, we have found that 184.108.40.206 is an artifactual orphan rather than a validated orphan. Genes for this enzyme have been identified in cow and mouse (J Biol Chem 272:28158 1997; J Biol Chem 276:20069 2001).
Involved in platelet activating factor biosynthesis; possible involvement in ischemia
Involved in platelet activation factor biosynthesis
Present in several mammalian tissues. Involved in glucose metabolism
2-oxoaldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)
Involved in the development of diabetic complications
Present in both lower and higher eukaryotes
Investigated as a predictor of carotid endarterectomy in middle-aged individuals
2-oxoisovalerate dehydrogenase (acylating)
Present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the latter, participates in primary metabolism pathway for valine degradation