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Table 4 The regulatory proclivity of common metabolites and regulators in E. coli. .

From: Regulation of metabolic networks by small molecule metabolites

Rank Compound Reaction ECs Regulated ECs Ratio
1 NAD+ 116 19 0.16
2 NADPH 82 20 0.24
3 NADH 110 28 0.25
4 NADP+ 83 22 0.27
5 L-Glutamate 44 12 0.27
6 Acetyl-CoA 33 11 0.33
7 CoA 48 19 0.40
8 ATP 176 70 0.40
9 Pyrophosphate 94 38 0.40
10 Orthophosphate 119 53 0.45
11 ADP 119 70 0.59
12 Pyruvate 42 25 0.60
13 2-Oxoglutarate 22 18 0.82
14 AMP 53 55 1.04
15 UTP 13 22 1.69
16 GTP 20 35 1.75
17 CTP 11 24 2.18
18 L-Cysteine 10 26 2.60
19 Glutathione 9 29 3.22
20 Spermidine 4 22 5.50
21 D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 3 20 6.67
22 Adenosine 3 21 7.00
23 Urea 1 20 20.00
24 Mercaptoethanol 1 40 40.00
  1. Compounds that are either regulated or are involved in more than 20 reactions in E. coli are shown. Small molecules (<4 non-hydrogen atoms) are excluded)