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Table 1 Normalization effects on metabolite concentration data. Effects of normalization on the quantitation of metabolite concentrations. Concentrations are reported in units of μM in columns 2, 3, 6, and 7. The concentration units in columns 4 and 5 are reported as μM/[Creatinine] (μM).

From: Metabonomics evaluations of age-related changes in the urinary compositions of male Sprague Dawley rats and effects of data normalization methods on statistical and quantitative analysis

Postulated identity Study 1 (μM) Study 2 (μM) Study 1 Normalized to Creatinine (μM)/[Crea] (μM) Study 2 Normalized to Creatinine (μM)/[Crea] (μM) Study 1 Normalized to TMSP/total intensity (μM) Study 2 Normalized to TMSP/total intensity (μM)
2-OG 3915 ± 2459 6261 ± 2524 1.24 ± 0.04 1.48 ± 0.55 62.5 ± 24.8 82.3 ± 25.9
Acetate 986 ± 1145 440 ± 547 0.33 ± 0.36 0.19 ± 0.24 16.9 ± 20.6 11.1 ± 13.7
Citrate 6563 ± 3896 6436 ± 2182 2.10 ± 0.58 1.61 ± 0.50 104.6 ± 36.5 90.3 ± 24.6
Creatine 329 ± 544 550 ± 811 0.12 ± 0.20 0.27 ± 0.25 7.1 ± 12.3 15.9 ± 14.8
Creatinine 3029 ± 1161 3710 ± 772 N/A N/A 50.9 ± 13.5 57.0 ± 3.0
Formate 342 ± 167 403 ± 311 0.11 ± 0.04 0.10 ± 0.06 5.7 ± 2.3 5.4 ± 3.0
Hippurate 2209 ± 1118 3489 ± 1046 0.74 ± 0.26 0.81 ± 0.23 37.2 ± 15.9 45.5 ± 12.1
Oxalacetate 766 ± 298 514 ± 180 0.28 ± 0.12 0.15 ± 0.07 13.5 ± 5.7 8.7 ± 3.6
Taurine 1011 ± 798 3187 ± 1611 0.35 ± 0.29 0.83 ± 0.47 19.5 ± 19.3 46.9 ± 25.2
trans-Aconitate 1329 ± 528 1582 ± 425 0.44 ± 0.06 0.38 ± 0.11 22.3 ± 6.1 21.5 ± 60.0