The alpha-Hemolysin nanopore transduction detector. The nanopore-based transduction detector uses a reporter molecule that binds to certain molecules, with subsequent distinctive blockade by the bound-molecule complex. An example of this is shown – the DNA-hairpin/Antibody complex. The interaction of that antibody with its target antigen is expected to lead to a blockade shift upon antigen binding, as shown in the Results. The latter description provides the general mechanism for directly observing the single-molecule antigen-binding affinities of any antibody in complex situations, such as those involving selection of adjuvants.