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Table 2 Syntactic patterns and their effect on hedging strength

From: Recognizing speculative language in biomedical research articles: a linguistically motivated perspective

Syntactic Pattern Effect on strength
<EPISTEMIC VERB>to(inf) VB +1
<EPISTEMIC VERB>that(comp) VB +2
Otherwise -1
<EPISTEMIC NOUN> followed by that(comp) +2
Otherwise -1
not <UNHEDGING VERB> +1
no|not <UNHEDGING NOUN> +2
no|not immediately followed by <UNHEDGING ADVERB> +1
no|not immediately followed by <UNHEDGING ADJECTIVE> +1
whether|if in a clausal complement context 3(SA)
1.58(IG)