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# Table 2 Results of the randomisation tests on six environmental variables

Environmental variable | Path model | Treated as a resistance or conductance factor | Single-tree analysis: | 100 trees analysis: % of trees with |
---|---|---|---|---|

Croplands | straight-line | not applicable | −0.013 (0.43) | 7 % |

least-cost | conductance | −0.069 (0.67) | 0 % | |

least-cost | resistance | 0.014 (0.39) | 28 % | |

random walk | conductance | −0.061 (0.35) | 1 % | |

random walk | resistance | 0.012 (0.28) | 27 % | |

Forests | straight-line path | not applicable | 0.001 (0.42) | 0 % |

least-cost path | conductance | −0.046 (0.84) | 0 % | |

least-cost path | resistance | 0.013 (0.49) | 2 % | |

random walk path | conductance | −0.064 (0.72) | 3 % | |

random walk path | resistance | −0.035 (0.91) | 0 % | |

Savannas | straight-line path | not applicable | −0.075 (0.89) | 0 % |

least-cost path | conductance | 0.018 (0.17) | 1 % | |

least-cost path | resistance | −0.059 (0.75) | 0 % | |

random walk path | conductance | −0.003 (0.81) | 4 % | |

random walk path | resistance | −0.072 (0.96) | 0 % | |

Elevation | straight-line path | not applicable | 0.055 (0.02*) | 52 % |

least-cost path | conductance | −0.072 (0.86) | 0 % | |

least-cost path | resistance | 0.078 (0.00*) | 81 % | |

random walk path | conductance | −0.061 (0.44) | 0 % | |

random walk path | resistance | 0.067 (0.10) | 72 % | |

Human density | straight-line path | not applicable | −0.076 (0.94) | 0 % |

least-cost path | conductance | 0.063 (0.04) | 17 % | |

least-cost path | resistance | −0.069 (0.90) | 0 % | |

random walk path | conductance | −0.072 (0.99) | 12 % | |

random walk path | resistance | −0.070 (0.78) | 0 % | |

Inaccessibility | straight-line path | not applicable | 0.070 (0.00*) | 18 % |

least-cost path | conductance | −0.047 (0.84) | 0 % | |

least-cost path | resistance | 0.089 (0.00*) | 51 % | |

random walk path | conductance | −0.060 (0.66) | 0 % | |

random walk path | resistance | 0.077 (0.18) | 35 % |