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Table 1 Main results: separated and integrated effects of all six genetic operators. Instance 1,3,4,5,7,8 come from [13], instance 2' is derived by using a scaling-rounding-adjusting process towards instance 2, m, n, k are the lengths of the input fragments A, B and C, respectively. There are six genetic operators, RWS is selection operator defined as the well-known roulette wheel algorithm. PCC and RSC are crossing operators, PCC is the combination of two permutations, RSC is Referencing Sorting Crossing, P4X, FLP, CSH are mutation operators, P4X is a four-point mutating, FLP defined as the flipping of the given fragment. CSH defined as the cyclic shifting of the given fragment. The average running time, average evolution generations and success rate are listed in the table. At the right of the table, we draw pie charts of DDmap’s two solutions.

From: DDmap: a MATLAB package for the double digest problem using multiple genetic operators