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Table 1 Known and suspected microbial association with cancer pathogenesis

From: Tissue-associated microbial detection in cancer using human sequencing data

Cancer type Known microbial associations Suspected agents References
Breast
Triple-negative, HER2+, ER+
None Epstein–Barr virus, human papillomaviruses
Alistipes spp.
Bacteroides fragilis, Sphingobium yanoikuyae, Microbial dysbiosis
[35, 36, 39, 40]
Prostate
Prostate adenocarcinoma
None Cutibacterium acnes
Bacteroides massiliensis
Streptococcus spp.
Staphylococcus spp.
Microbial dysbiosis
[37, 41, 42]
Stomach
Stomach adenocarcinoma
Helicobacter pylori,
Epstein Barr Virus
Microbial dysbiosis [57, 70]
Liver
Liver and intrahepatic bile duct
Hepatitis viruses,
Parasitic infections
Helicobacter pylori [43]
Cervical
Cervical squamous cell and endometrial carcinoma
Human papillomaviruses Chlamydia trachomatis, microbiome dysbiosis [63]
Head and Neck
Oropharyngeal and laryngeal
Epstein Barr Virus,
Human papillomaviruses
Fusobacterium nucleatum, microbiome dysbiosis [56, 58]
Colon and rectum
Colorectal adenocarcinoma
Microbial dysbiosis
Fusobacterium nucleatum
Human papillomavirus
Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus bovis, E. Escherichia coli, E. Bacteroides fragilis, Campylobacter spp.
[10, 31, 32, 55]
Kidney
Renal cell carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma
None Hepatitis C virus
Epstein Barr Virus
Urinary tract infection-associated pathogens
[44]
Lung
Lung squamous cell and adenocarcinomas
None Epstein Barr Virus
Molluscum Contagiosum virus
Microbial dysbiosis
Chlamydia pneumoniae
[45]
Bladder
Bladder squamous cell carcinoma
Schistosoma haematobium Human papillomavirus
Epstein–Barr Virus
[46]
  1. Common cancer types listing known and suspected microbial (viral, bacterial, and other) agents associated with cancer pathogenesis or that have been identified as common causes of infection in cancer patients, which may play a role in patient inter-variability