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Table 4 Nearest neighbor performance (10-fold cross-validation error, %)

From: Efficient alignment-free DNA barcode analytics

Dataset

Spectrum

Hamming

Kimura

Smith-Waterman

ACG

2.49 ± 0.87

11.44 ± 1.52

5.51 ± 0.86

3.66 ± 0.66

Hesperiidae

3.57 ± 1.08

14.49 ± 2.36

3.81 ± 1.26

5.45 ± 1.20

Astraptes

1.07 ± 1.81

3.61 ± 2.77

1.71 ± 1.96

1.64 ± 1.03

Bats Guyana

1.63 ± 1.22

2.72 ± 1.83

1.63 ± 1.22

1.63 ± 1.22

Birds of North America

6.22 ± 1.50

18.38 ± 2.05

6.02 ± 1.36

8.20 ± 1.53

Fish Australia

5.50 ± 3.27

5.87 ± 4.01

5.35 ± 3.36

5.35 ± 3.36

Fish larvae

2.86

11.43

8.57

5.71

  1. leave-one-out validation error is reported