  
α


Model

Mean(
T
^{2}
)

λ

0.05

0.01

0.001

Linear

1.206

1.224

0.073

0.018

0.0027

Linear, robust

1.210

1.228

0.073

0.018

0.0028

Linear, mmscore

0.984

1.007

0.047

0.009

0.0011

 Tests were performed using a trait dependent on two covariates and with (adjusted) heritability of 30%. Only SNPs with estimated minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 (n = 212, 691) used. Linear: standard linear model; Linear, robust: linear models using with standard errors; Linear, mmscore: twostep approximation to mixed model, fixed effects included in step 1 of analysis.