Load and query performance. Comparisons of load and query times between the HBase and BerkeleyDB backend. (a) Load times for the “1102 GBM” tumor/normal genomes where compared between HBase and BerkeleyDB. Both used a single-threaded approach to better compare relative performance. Both perform similarly but over time the load times for BerkeleyDB increase faster than with HBase. (b) Comparison of querying the 1102 genome database between BerkeleyDB, HBase single threaded, and HBase using MapReduce. Beyond 3M variants BerkeleyDB query times increase dramatically while both query types for HBase perform linearly, with MapReduce consistently exhibiting the best performance.