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Table 5 Helix Phantom tortuosity

From: Validation of an arterial tortuosity measure with application to hypertension collection of clinical hypertensive patients

Phantom Peak Distance Factor Metric Approximate coils Peak DFM/2.80 ratio
Pitch 5(2π) 20.95 8 7.48
Pitch 10(2π) 10.76 4 3.84
Pitch 20(2π) 5.45 2 1.95
Pitch 40(2π) 2.80 1 1.00
  1. The peak distance factor metric tortuosity scores are lower with increasing pitch of the three-dimensional helix phantoms.