Important regulators and hypothetical regulatory model in serous ovarian cancer. (a) Regulators regulate cyclins in serous ovarian cancer. (b) Hypothesis regulatory model of secreted proteins in serous ovarian cancer. (a) Cyclins have 603 regulators in the causal network. CSA identified 358 potential active regulators in serous ovarian cancer; 77 of 358 regulators were found to regulate cyclins. Regulators (red nodes) regulated cyclins (blue nodes) and also regulated each other, which implies that these regulators work cooperatively to regulate cyclins. (b) Secreted proteins TNF, IL6, VEGFA and CCL2 were identified as regulators (red nodes) in serous ovarian cancer by CSA. They regulated each other and two other secreted proteins, MIF and CXCL12 (green nodes). TNF, IL6, VEGFA and CCL2 are also used as therapeutic targets of several different kinds of cancers [35–38].