Comparison results of execution time. Average running time in seconds is shown. The y-axis is in log scale. Random (MaxMin) means the divide-and-conquer mode of CFMDS with Random (MaxMin) sampling. One-shot MDS represents CFMDS without divide-and-conquer. Conventional MDS represents the classical MDS implemented using C# or MATLAB in serial computing environments. "0.00" denotes "not applicable." For S. cerevisiae and MNIST datasets, we were not able to apply the one-shot mode of CFMDS due to the memory limitation in our graphics card.