Example images of case applications. a) A wild type LPTC Vertical System 1 (VS1) neuron in a fruitfly adult brain; b) A mutant of VS1 neuron. Neuron morphology of a) and b) are labeled using green fluorescent protein; c) A LPTC Horizontal System (HS) neuron whose morphology is labeled with a membrane-tethered red fluorescent protein. Images shown in a, b, and c) are maximal projections of 3D image obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Scale bar: 10 microns.