A: Relationship between the average of the Jaccard coefficient (JC) and the pathway distance, B: The distribution of the number of enzymes in a "phylogenetic network module". A: This figure indicates the transition of the JC average according to pathway distance. Pathway distance is defined as the smallest number of steps between two enzymes in the metabolic network. The white and black circles correspond to an actual network and the average of relabeled networks, respectively. The obvious difference appears in the area where pathway distance is less than 5 steps. B: This figure shows the difference between the actual and the average of relabeled networks in terms of the number of enzymes in a module. White dots correspond to the actual modules, and the black ones correspond to the modules generated from relabeled networks. The equations in the upper portion give the slope of the line fitted by the least-squares method.