Panel (a) shows the sought-after toggler-type signal. Panel (b) Shows the modification to the toggler-type signal shortly after addition of 5-base ssDNA. Note: the blockade timescales are not the same, 0.7 seconds on (a) and 2.0 seconds for (b). The observed change is hypothesized to represent annealing by the complimentary 5-base ssDNA component, and thus detection of the 5-base ssDNA molecule. The "lengthy" toggler signal (a) was of briefer duration than desirable, by at least a magnitude, but modifications along the lines of the Y-aptamer geometries have recently yielded excellent results for characterizing binding properties (a work-in progress).