PCA loadings plots of the pJRES NMR spectra of canine urine. (A) Unscaled data, (B) autoscaled data, (C) Pareto scaled data, (D) glog transformed data. The plots represent the loadings perpendicular to the decision line calculated by using LDA on each of the scaled data sets. The 5 largest bins in each plot have each been tested as potential biomarkers to discriminate between the two classes. Key: (solid circle) bin is not significantly different; (*) p < 0.05; (**) p < 0.01; (***) p < 0.001.