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Table 1 Identifying directional relationships in MEDLINE for the chemical compound caffeine on the basis of summarized relationships after analysis of 17,145 abstracts.

From: Large-scale directional relationship extraction and resolution

ObjectName No rel. ND Rel. F+ F- Fn R+ R- Rn Expected Extracted
(-)-Adrenaline 58 22 14 4 17 0 3 17 F+ F+
(-)-Dopa 5 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 F+ None
Cyclic AMP 30 9 21 11 12 4 3 13 F+ F+
diuresis 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 F+ F+
Drowsiness 2 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 F - F+
Fatigue 23 8 4 6 15 1 0 11 F- F-
Fatty acid 10 0 1 0 6 0 0 2 F+ None
gastric acid secretion 3 3 1 0 2 0 0 1 F+ None
Glycerol 15 6 2 3 8 0 0 3 F+ F -
insomnia 16 3 3 0 5 0 0 2 F+ F+
Irritability 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 F+ F+
Lethargy 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 F- None
lipid metabolism 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 F+ None
Nervousness 0 1 0 1 5 0 0 1 F+ None
Norepinephrine 61 19 10 2 18 4 0 16 F+ F+
Palpitation 5 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 F+ None
PKA 3 1 1 0 3 0 0 2 F+ None
Respiratory alkalosis 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 F+ None
ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity 48 18 33 2 17 5 4 15 F+ F+
vasodilation 2 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 F- F-
vasoconstriction 5 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 F+ F+
  1. Possible directional relationships are classified as F orward (caffeine affects the object) or R everse (the object affects caffeine) and as stimulatory (+), inhibitory (-) or neutral (n). No rel = no relationship found, N.D. rel = no directional relationship found, Expected = the directional relation suggested by the summary information, Extracted = the directional relation with the most support, based on the sentences processed. Bold italic font indicates errors.
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