 Proceedings
 Open Access
 Published:
Networkbased modular latent structure analysis
BMC Bioinformatics volume 15, Article number: S6 (2014)
Abstract
Background
Highthroughput expression data, such as gene expression and metabolomics data, exhibit modular structures. Groups of features in each module follow a latent factor model, while between modules, the latent factors are quasiindependent. Recovering the latent factors can shed light on the hidden regulation patterns of the expression. The difficulty in detecting such modules and recovering the latent factors lies in the high dimensionality of the data, and the lack of knowledge in module membership.
Methods
Here we describe a method based on community detection in the coexpression network. It consists of inferencebased network construction, module detection, and interacting latent factor detection from modules.
Results
In simulations, the method outperformed projectionbased modular latent factor discovery when the input signals were not Gaussian. We also demonstrate the method's value in real data analysis.
Conclusions
The new method nMLSA (networkbased modular latent structure analysis) is effective in detecting latent structures, and is easy to extend to nonlinear cases. The method is available as R code at http://web1.sph.emory.edu/users/tyu8/nMLSA/.
Background
Modularity is a common characteristic of highthroughput biological data [1]. In a large system, the biological units, i.e. features (genes, proteins, or metabolites) are organized into quasiautonomous modules. In expression data, each expression module can be modeled reasonably well using the latent factor approach [2, 3]. Given the involvement of thousands of features, an unknown number of modules, and unknown module membership of the features, it is difficult to faithfully detect the modules and recover the underlying latent factors controlling the modules.
Dimension reduction methods at the global level, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) [4], sparse PCA [5, 6], and Bayesian decomposition [7] are not effective in detecting localized signals. Clustering methods group coexpressed features together [8], which may help identify modules that are controlled by a single underlying signal [9, 10]. However in real data, the features involved in the same module may not coexpress when more than one latent factors control the module. We previously proposed the projectionbased Modular Latent Structure Analysis (MLSA) [11], which detects modules using iteratively reweighted singular value decomposition (SVD). So far there are no other modular decomposition methods. In this study, we seek to improve the method using a totally different approach. Our goal is to develop a method that is more intuitive, flexible, and involves less ad hoc parameter choices.
Using networks constructed from expression data can provide a flexible framework for module detection [12–14]. Here we present a method to identify modules and the underlying latent signals in three steps: (1) constructing a coexpression network based on statistical inference and local false discovery rate (lfdr); (2) detecting communities in the network; and (3) recovering interacting latent factors from the modules.
The goal of the algorithm is to achieve modular matrix decomposition. We attempt to solve the problem by assembling tools from some wellestablished fields. The first is the reverse engineering of genomescale networks. There are a number of methods available in this area, which were designed with different objectives, including Gaussian Graphical Models where the absence of an edge signifies conditional independence [15, 16], coexpression network where edges signify marginal dependence [13], information theorybased networks [17], and Bayesian networks [18]. In this study, we designed our own method to estimate an inferencebased coexpression network using the local false discovery rate (lfdr) concept [19–21]. The use of local fdr makes the procedure adaptive to shifts of baseline correlation levels and avoids constructing overly dense networks when there are pervasive lowlevel correlations between genes. Once the network is constructed, we borrow a method from the mature field of community detection in large networks [22–25]. This is followed by latent factor extraction and rotation using factor analysis methods [26]. Added together, the assembled tools make a very good heuristic solution to the modular decomposition problem.
We demonstrate the superiority of the new method against existing modular and global decomposition methods using simulations, and apply the method to a real dataset to show it detects biologically meaningful modules that are controlled by multiple latent factors.
Methods
The objective
Given a data matrix G_{ p×n } with p features measured in n conditions, we seek to assign subgroups of the features into modules, such that within each module, the expression levels of the features can be modeled by a linear factor model
where q is the size of the module, r is the number of latent factors controlling the module, L is the regulation strength (loading) matrix, and E is the residual matrix. Our interest is estimating (1) the number of modules, (2) the module membership of the features, (3) the activities of the latent factors controlling each module (F matrix), and (4) the regulation strength of each factor on each feature (L matrix).
The estimation procedure
Figure 1 illustrates the procedure using a toy dataset with two modules. Generally, three steps are involved.
Step 1. Constructing coexpression network based on local fdr. We use the concept of local false discovery rate (lfdr) to establish links between features [19]. First, we compute the correlation coefficients ${r}_{ij}$ between all pairs of features. Secondly, we transform the correlation coefficients by
so that the distribution of the resulting statistic is close to normal under the null hypothesis that the pair of features are independent [27]. Thirdly, we compute the local false discovery rate using Efron's procedure [19]. The local fdr is a statistical statement of how likely two features are independent given we observe the statistics from all pairs of features. Fourth, if the local fdr value for a pair of features is smaller than a threshold, e.g. 0.2, an edge is established between the two features.
Step 2. Module detection in the coexpression network. We first use a wellestablished method that detects dense subgraphs from a sparse graph by short random walks [25]. To finetune the results, we conduct an additional communitymerging step. For a pair of communities ${C}_{i}$ that contains ${m}_{i}$ features and ${k}_{i}$ withincommunity connections, and ${C}_{j}$ that contains ${m}_{j}$ features and ${k}_{j}$ withincommunity connections, we divide the number of betweencommunity connections ${k}_{ij}$ by the expected number of connections if the communities were indeed one
We then pool all the ${\delta}_{ij}$ values computed from all pairs of communities and examine the distribution. Any outlier ${\delta}_{ij}$, defined by a value higher than the median plus four times the difference between the 75^{th} percentile and the median, signifies a community pair that should be merged into a single community.
Step 3. Detecting latent factors from each module. For each module, we first conduct an eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix, and select all eigenvectors that account for at least 5% of the data variance. We then find the projection length of each feature onto each eigenvector ${\left\{{l}_{i}^{\left(j\right)}\right\}}_{i=1,\dots {m}_{i},j=1,\dots ,{n}_{j}}$, where i denotes the feature and j denotes the eigenvector. The value ${m}_{j}$ is the number of features in the module, and ${n}_{j}$ is the number of eigenvectors under consideration.
Two eigenvectors are considered "interactive" if the correlation of the projection length of the features onto these two vectors is statistically significant. We initiate a selected vector set with only the first eigenvector. Then from the second eigenvector on, if the eigenvector is interactive with any vector in the selected set, it is added to the selected set. Otherwise we stop the iteration and return the selected vector set as the latent variables of the module. If more than one eigenvector is selected, we rotate them using oblique rotation [26].
Step 4. The overall factor model. After finding a collection of F matrices, we can combine them into an overall factor model with a sparse loading matrix to interpret the gene expression. Let K be the total number of latent factors found, B be the combined factor activity matrix of all the factor scores, L be the loading matrix, and E be the unexplained expression, we have a factor model,
The values in L can be filled in two ways. The first is by performing linear regression of each gene against only the factors of the modules the gene is assigned to. Alternatively, we can perform regularized regression of each gene against all the factors using lasso [28] with BIC (Bayesian information criterion) model selection.
Simulation study
We refer to our method as "Networkbased Modular Latent Factor Analysis (nMLSA)". We compared the method with MLSA [11], PCA, ICA [29], factor analysis with oblique rotation [26], gene shaving [9], and sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) [5]. In each simulation, we generated a gene expression dataset with 10 modules. Every module consisted of 100 simulated genes. The number of latent factors controlling the module was randomly selected between 1 and 3. An additional 1000 pure noise genes were generated from the standard Gaussian distribution. We vary the following parameters in the simulations:

(1)
The latent factor scores were either independent Gaussian, or randomly chosen from a mixture of four types: Gaussian, sine wave, square wave, and sawtooth wave (Additional file 1 Figure S1). The setting stayed the same for every module in each simulated dataset.

(2)
Different levels of withinmodule loading sparsity, i.e. proportion of zero loadings, were tested. The sparsity of the loading matrix was achieved by drawing samples from the binomial distribution. After the nonzero positions in the loading matrix was determined, for every simulated gene, if there were m controlling factors, we divided [0, 1]into m regions by drawing (m1) samples from the uniform distribution between 0 and 1. We then used the sizes of the regions as the loadings for the gene. Half of the loadings were then multiplied by 1 to generate negative loadings. The sparsity levels tested were 0%, 30% and 60%. The setting stayed the same for every module in each simulated dataset.

(3)
After multiplying the loading matrix and the factor score matrix to generate the simulated expression matrix, Gaussian random noise was added to achieve different signal to noise ratios (values used: 1, 2). The setting stayed the same for every module in each simulated dataset.
The number of samples was set at 100. All possible combinations of the parameters were tested, each repeated 100 times.
To judge the performance of the methods, we used the information of the true hidden factors to group the identified factors. Let K be the combined hidden factor count from all modules in the simulated dataset. We first performed linear regression of every identified factor against each hidden factor group (those controlled the same module), and recorded the multiple R^{2}. The identified factor was assigned to the hidden factor group with which it had the largest R^{2} value. The K identified factors with the largest R^{2} values were retained for the next step. Second, we performed linear regression of every true hidden factor against the identified factors assigned to its group, and recorded the multiple R^{2} as the level of recovery of the true hidden factor. The ideal method should yield multiple R^{2} values close to one. After repeating the simulation from every parameter setting 100 times, we compared the methods by the distribution of the multiple R^{2} values.
Results
Simulation results
The simulation results are summarized in Figure 2. Each subplot represents a parameter setting. The relative frequencies (10 equalsized bins between 0 and 1, equivalent to the histogram) of the R^{2} values are plotted in Figure 1. Different colors represent different methods. The curves are effectively histograms of the multiple R^{2} values. The curve of a better method should show higher frequency in larger R^{2} values. In all the scenarios, clearly nMLSA (red) and MLSA (blue) outperformed the other methods.
When the true signals were Gaussian (Figure 2; two right columns), nMLSA and MLSA yielded similar results. Both methods recovered the hidden factors almost perfectly in all sparsity (rows) and noise (columns) settings. When the true signals were randomly drawn from four different types (Figure 2; two left columns), nMLSA outperformed MLSA. Both methods tend to either fully recover or totally miss a hidden factor, as indicated by spikes at R^{2} = 1 and R^{2} = 0. However when the withinmodule sparsity was moderate to low (30% and 0%), nMLSA showed a roughly 3fold reduction in the chance to miss hidden factors, and accordingly a much higher chance to faithfully recover the hidden factors.
Real data analysis
The Spellman cell cycle data consists of four timeseries, each covering roughly two cell cycles [30]. The array data consists of 73 conditions and 6178 genes. Because of phase differences, the cell cyclerelated genes cannot be easily summarized by clusters although many of them exhibit periodic patterns [31]. We applied nMLSA to the cell cycle data as a whole, in order to discover common patterns across the four time series. Our method identified 7 modules containing 10 latent factors in total. The two largest modules each contained two latent factors (Figure 3).
While MLSA also detected the second module, it failed to detect module 1 found by nMLSA (Figure 3, left panel). Functional analyses using Gene Ontology [32] indicate the module is highly biologically meaningful. Based on hypergeometric tests using the GOStats package [33], genes associated with the first factor of the module strongly overrepresent biological processes related to RNA processing and the ribosome, which is central to protein biosynthesis (Table 1). Genes associated with the second factor overrepresent biological processes related to protein degradation, transport and localization (Table 2). Protein transport and localization processes are naturally coordinated with protein biosynthesis. Evidences also point to the coregulation of protein biosynthesis and protein degradation, under normal circumstances and experimental interference [34–36].
The second module is even more intuitive biologically. The factor scores showed that the second module was governed by two periodic latent factors with similar periodicity but different phases (Figure 3, right). Genes of this module showed clear periodic behavior with different phase shifts (Figure 4), which is consistent with the biological knowledge that cellcycle genes are activated at different phases of the cell cycle [30]. We analyzed the functionalities of the genes associated with each factor using gene ontology (GO). It was clear that cell cyclerelated biological processes dominated the list of top processes overrepresented by genes associated with either latent factors (Tables 3 &4). Other methods used in the simulations, except MLSA, could not group cell cycle genes with different phase shift into a single module.
Discussions
In this study, we developed the networkbased modular latent structure analysis (nMLSA). It is aimed at detecting expression modules and latent factors controlling the modules, the same goal as the original MLSA [11]. Compared to MLSA, the new method is based on a totally different setup, and is substantially advantageous. Firstly, the number of tuning parameters and heuristic choices is substantially less compared to MLSA. Secondly, the method is much more intuitive to understand. Thirdly, it is more flexible. As an example, one can easily limit the gene relations to positive correlations and ignore negative correlations using nMLSA, while MLSA has to take both positive and negative correlations. Fourth, nMLSA can be adapted for nonlinearly associated modules if a nonlinear association measure is used in the coexpression network building, while MLSA is limited to linear relations. In the nonlinear case, it is difficult to define latent factors. The challenge is subject to our future studies.
Instead of using hard cutoffs, nMLSA utilizes the concept of local false discovery rate (lfdr). As different datasets exhibit different levels of baseline correlation [37], using hard cutoffs on correlations may result in unsatisfactory results. Using local false discovery rate procedures that are flexible in the null distribution estimation, nMLSA is naturally adaptive to the characteristics of the data. Given the nMLSA procedure relies on existing network community detection algorithms, it is admitted that the performance of the method relies on the choice of the community detection algorithm. The research field of community detection is mature and a number of good methods are available. Thus it is not difficult to tune the method to achieve good performance.
Conclusions
In summary, the new networkbased method nMLSA is more effective than existing methods in recovering biologically meaningful latent variables and latent variable groups. The method can potentially be extended to detect nonlinearly associated modules if a nonlinear association measure is used to build the network.
References
 1.
Wagner GP, Pavlicev M, Cheverud JM: The road to modularity. Nat Rev Genet. 2007, 8: (12):921931.
 2.
Yu T, Li KC: Inference of transcriptional regulatory network by twostage constrained space factor analysis. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21 (21): 40334038. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti656.
 3.
Liao JC, Boscolo R, Yang YL, Tran LM, Sabatti C, Roychowdhury VP: Network component analysis: reconstruction of regulatory signals in biological systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100 (26): 1552215527. 10.1073/pnas.2136632100.
 4.
Lee TW: Independent component analysis : theory and applications. 1998, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers
 5.
Zou H, Hastie T, Tibshirani R: Sparse principal component analysis. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. 2006, 15 (2): 265286. 10.1198/106186006X113430.
 6.
Carvalho CM, Chang J, Lucas JE, Nevins JR, Wang Q, West M: HighDimensional Sparse Factor Modeling: Applications in Gene Expression Genomics. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 2008, 103 (484): 14381456. 10.1198/016214508000000869.
 7.
Moloshok TD, Klevecz RR, Grant JD, Manion FJ, Speier WFt, Ochs MF: Application of Bayesian decomposition for analysing microarray data. Bioinformatics. 2002, 18 (4): 566575. 10.1093/bioinformatics/18.4.566.
 8.
Gan G, Ma C, Wu J: Data clustering : theory, algorithms, and applications. 2007, Philadelphia, Pa. Alexandria, Va.: SIAM. American Statistical Association
 9.
Hastie T, Tibshirani R, Eisen MB, Alizadeh A, Levy R, Staudt L, Chan WC, Botstein D, Brown P: 'Gene shaving' as a method for identifying distinct sets of genes with similar expression patterns. Genome Biol. 2000, 1 (2): RESEARCH0003
 10.
Yuan S, Li KC: Contextdependent clustering for dynamic cellular state modeling of microarray gene expression. Bioinformatics. 2007, 23 (22): 30393047. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm457.
 11.
Yu T: An exploratory data analysis method to reveal modular latent structures in highthroughput data. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010, 11: 44010.1186/1471210511440.
 12.
Fu Q, Lemmens K, SanchezRodreiquez A, Thijs IM, Meysman P, Sun H, Fierro AC, Engelen K, Marchal K: Directed module detection in a largescale expression compendium. Methods Mol Biol. 2012, 804: 131165. 10.1007/9781617793615_8.
 13.
Langfelder P, Horvath S: WGCNA: an R package for weighted correlation network analysis. BMC Bioinformatics. 2008, 9: 55910.1186/147121059559.
 14.
Li A, Horvath S: Network module detection: Affinity search technique with the multinode topological overlap measure. BMC Res Notes. 2009, 2: 14210.1186/175605002142.
 15.
Peng J, Wang P, Zhou N, Zhu J: Partial Correlation Estimation by Joint Sparse Regression Models. J Am Stat Assoc. 2009, 104 (486): 735746. 10.1198/jasa.2009.0126.
 16.
Schafer J, Strimmer K: An empirical Bayes approach to inferring largescale gene association networks. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21 (6): 754764. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti062.
 17.
Margolin AA, Nemenman I, Basso K, Wiggins C, Stolovitzky G, Dalla Favera R, Califano A: ARACNE: an algorithm for the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in a mammalian cellular context. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006, 7 (Suppl 1): S710.1186/147121057S1S7.
 18.
Ellis B, Wong W: Learning causal bayesian network structures from experimental data. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 2008, 103: 778789. 10.1198/016214508000000193.
 19.
Efron B, Tibshirani R: Empirical Bayes methods and false discovery rates for microarrays. Genet Epidemiol. 2002, 23 (1): 7086. 10.1002/gepi.1124.
 20.
Strimmer K: A unified approach to false discovery rate estimation. BMC Bioinformatics. 2008, 9: 30310.1186/147121059303.
 21.
Guedj M, Robin S, Celisse A, Nuel G: Kerfdr: a semiparametric kernelbased approach to local false discovery rate estimation. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009, 10: 8410.1186/147121051084.
 22.
Ball B, Karrer B, Newman ME: Efficient and principled method for detecting communities in networks. Physical review E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics. 2011, 84 (3 Pt 2): 036103
 23.
Hofman JM, Wiggins CH: Bayesian approach to network modularity. Physical review letters. 2008, 100 (25): 258701
 24.
Newman ME: Spectral methods for community detection and graph partitioning. Physical review E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics. 2013, 88 (4): 042822
 25.
Pons P, Latapy M: Computing Communities in Large Networks Using Random Walks. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2005, 3733: 284293. 10.1007/11569596_31.
 26.
Bernaards CA, Jennrich RI: Gradient Projection Algorithms and Software for Arbitrary Rotation Criteria in Factor Analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2005, 65: 676696. 10.1177/0013164404272507.
 27.
Rahman NA: A course in theoretical statistics for sixth forms, technical colleges, colleges of education, universities. 1968, London,: Griffin
 28.
Efron B, Hastie T, Johnstone I, Tibshirani R: Least Angle Regression. Annals of Statistics. 2003, 32 (2): 407499.
 29.
Hastie T, Tibshirani R, Friedman JH: The elements of statistical learning : data mining, inference, and prediction. 2009, New York, NY: Springer, 2
 30.
Spellman PT, Sherlock G, Zhang MQ, Iyer VR, Anders K, Eisen MB, Brown PO, Botstein D, Futcher B: Comprehensive identification of cell cycleregulated genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by microarray hybridization. Mol Biol Cell. 1998, 9 (12): 32733297. 10.1091/mbc.9.12.3273.
 31.
Li KC, Yan M, Yuan SS: A simple statistical model for depicting the cdc15synchronized yeast cellcycle regulated gene expression data. Stat Sinica. 2002, 12 (1): 141158.
 32.
Ashburner M, Ball CA, Blake JA, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry JM, Davis AP, Dolinski K, Dwight SS, Eppig JT: Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nat Genet. 2000, 25 (1): 2529. 10.1038/75556.
 33.
Falcon S, Gentleman R: Using GOstats to test gene lists for GO term association. Bioinformatics. 2007, 23 (2): 257258. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btl567.
 34.
Dai CL, Shi J, Chen Y, Iqbal K, Liu F, Gong CX: Inhibition of protein synthesis alters protein degradation through activation of protein kinase B (AKT). J Biol Chem. 2013
 35.
Hemmerlin A: Posttranslational events and modifications regulating plant enzymes involved in isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. Plant Sci. 2013, 203204: 4154.
 36.
Stein H, Honig A, Miller G, Erster O, Eilenberg H, Csonka LN, Szabados L, Koncz C, Zilberstein A: Elevation of free proline and prolinerich protein levels by simultaneous manipulations of proline biosynthesis and degradation in plants. Plant Sci. 2011, 181 (2): 140150. 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.04.013.
 37.
Yu T, Zhao Y, Shen S: AAPL: Assessing Association between Pvalue Lists. Statistical analysis and data mining. 2013, 6 (2): 144155. 10.1002/sam.11180.
Acknowledgements
This work was partially supported by NIH grants P20HL113451, P30AI50409 and U19AI090023. The funding source to publish the publication cost is NIH grant U19AI090023.
This article has been published as part of BMC Bioinformatics Volume 15 Supplement 13, 2014: Selected articles from the 9th International Symposium on Bioinformatics Research and Applications (ISBRA'13): Bioinformatics. The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcbioinformatics/supplements/15/S13.
Author information
Affiliations
Corresponding author
Additional information
Competing interests
None.
Authors' contributions
TY developed the computational method, conducted simulations. TY and YB conducted real data analyses, interpreted the results, and drafted the manuscript.
Electronic supplementary material
Rights and permissions
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
About this article
Cite this article
Yu, T., Bai, Y. Networkbased modular latent structure analysis. BMC Bioinformatics 15, S6 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471210515S13S6
Published:
Keywords
 matrix decomposition
 modularity
 latent factors
 network
 community detection