 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
A novel multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling technique for biomedical data
BMC Bioinformatics volume 23, Article number: 275 (2022)
Abstract
Background
Text mining in the biomedical field has received much attention and regarded as the important research area since a lot of biomedical data is in text format. Topic modeling is one of the popular methods among text mining techniques used to discover hidden semantic structures, so called topics. However, discovering topics from biomedical data is a challenging task due to the sparsity, redundancy, and unstructured format.
Methods
In this paper, we proposed a novel multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling (MKFTM) technique using fusion probabilistic inverse document frequency and multiple kernel fuzzy cmeans clustering algorithm for biomedical text mining. In detail, the proposed fusion probabilistic inverse document frequency method is used to estimate the weights of global terms while MKFTM generates frequencies of local and global terms with bagofwords. In addition, the principal component analysis is applied to eliminate higherorder negative effects for term weights.
Results
Extensive experiments are conducted on six biomedical datasets. MKFTM achieved the highest classification accuracy 99.04%, 99.62%, 99.69%, 99.61% in the Muchmore Springer dataset and 94.10%, 89.45%, 92.91%, 90.35% in the Ohsumed dataset. The CH index value of MKFTM is higher, which shows that its clustering performance is better than stateoftheart topic models.
Conclusion
We have confirmed from results that proposed MKFTM approach is very efficient to handles to sparsity and redundancy problem in biomedical text documents. MKFTM discovers semantically relevant topics with high accuracy for biomedical documents. Its gives better results for classification and clustering in biomedical documents. MKFTM is a new approach to topic modeling, which has the flexibility to work with a variety of clustering methods.
Background
Many medical records are mostly in text format, and these documents must be analyzed to find meaningful information. According to the National Science Foundation, managing and analyzing scientific data on a large scale is a major challenge for data and future research [1]. The massive amount of biomedical text data can be a valuable source of knowledge for biomedical researchers. Biomedical texts contain unstructured information, such as scientific publications and brief case reports. Text mining seeks to discover knowledge from unstructured text sources by utilizing tools and techniques from a variety of fields such as machine learning, information extraction, and cognitive science. Text mining is a promising approach and great scientific interest in the biomedical domain. These text documents in biomedical require new tools to search for related documents in a collection of documents. Today's biomedical text data is created and stored very quickly. Such as, in 2015, the number of papers available on the PubMed website exceeded six million. The average record of hospital discharges in the United States is more than 30 million [2]. Therefore, companies can save annual costs by using advanced data analysis technology based on machine learning for biomedical text data. Therefore, there is a need to produce efficient topic modeling techniques through advanced machine learning to discover hidden topics in complex biomedical texts.
One way to represent biomedical text documents in natural language processing is called the bagofwords (BOW) model. The BOW model corresponds to the frequency of words reflected in the matrix of a document collection, and word order in the document does not affect the BOW model. If the document has a vocabulary much shorter than a matrix, it is called a sparse matrix [3].
In text mining, all text corpora are processed, not just biomedical ones. There are several text mining applications such as Medline and PubMed. However, because most biomedical data is in unstructured text format, analyzing that unstructured data is a difficult task. Numerous text mining techniques are developed for the biomedical data domain that processes unstructured data into structured data. In the unstructured existence of biomedical text data, topic modeling techniques such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) [4], Latent semantic analysis(LSA) [5], Fuzzy latent semantic analysis (FLSA) [6] and Fuzzy kmeans topic model (FKTM)[7] are developed to analyze biomedical text data. LDA performs better in the classification of clinical reports [8]. LDA is used in a various applications, including the classification of genome sequence [9], the discovery of discussion concepts in social networks [10], patient data modeling [11], topic extraction from medical reports [12], the discovery of scientific data and biomedical relationships [13, 14]. The LDA method finds important clinical problems and formats clinical text reports in another investigation [15]. In other work, [16] used topic modeling to express scientific reports efficiently, allowing the analysis of the collections more quickly. Probabilisticbased topic modeling is applied to find the basic topics of the biomedical text collection. Topic process models are utilized in a variety of activities such as computer linguistics, overview for source code documents [17], product review brief opinion [18], description of a thematic revolution [19], discovery aspects of document analysis [20], sentiment analysis [21] and Twitter text message analysis [22]. LSA discovers clinical records from psychiatric narratives [19]. Semantic space is developed from psychological terms. LSA is also used to reveal semantic insights and ontology domains that are used to build a speech act model for spoken speech [23]. LSA also excels at topic identification and segmentation in clinical studies [24]. The RedLDA topic model is used in the biomedical field to determine redundancy in patient information data [25]. The latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an automatic analysis of the summary of clinical cases [26]. Topic models are used in biomedical data for a variety of purposes, such as finding hidden theme in documents and searching documents [27], document classification [28], and document analysis [29]. Topic modeling is an effective way to extract biomedical text, but word redundancy negatively affects topic modeling [30], and since most biomedical documents are duplicate words, it still needs improvement [31]. Answering biological factoid questions is a crucial part of the biomedical question answering domain [32]. In [33] relationship are discover from the text data.
Clustering is a process utilized in the biomedical investigation to extract meaningful information from large datasets. Fuzzy clustering is another way for hard clustering algorithms to divide data into subgroups with similar aspects [34]. The nonlinear nature of fuzzy clusters and the flexibility of largescale data clusters distinguish them from hard clustering. It offers more accurate solutions for partitioning and additional options for decisionmaking. Fuzzy clustering is a type of computation based on fuzzy logic, reflecting the probability or score of a data item belonging to multiple groups. Once the data is partitioned, the centers of the clusters are moved instead of the data points. Clustering is commonly done in order to identify patterns in large datasets and to retrieve valuable information [35]. Fuzzy grouping techniques are frequently used in a variety of applications where grouping of overlapping and ambiguous elements is required. In the biomedical field, some experience has been gathered in diagnosis and decision support systems, where a wide range of measurements is used as the data entry space, and a decision result is formed by suitably grouping the data symptom. Fuzzy clustering is a technique used for various applications such as medical diagnosis, biomedical signal classification, and diabetic neuropathy [36, 37]. It can also detect topics from biomedical documents and make informed decisions about radiation therapy. Fuzzy clustering has several uses in the biomedical field, especially in image processing and pattern recognition, but it is rarely used in topic modeling. In this study, we presented a multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling method for biomedical text data. The main contributions made to this research are summarized below.

We proposed a novel multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling (MKFTM) technique, which solves the problem of sparsity and redundancy in biomedical text mining.

We proposed a FPIDF (fusion probabilistic inverse document frequency) for global term weights, which is very effective for filtering out common high frequency words.

We conduct extensive experiments and show that MKFTM achieves better classification and clustering performance than latest stateoftheart topic models including LDA, LSA, FLSA, and FKTM.

We also compare the execution time of MKFTM and shows that its execution time is stable for different topics.
Materials and method
We described our proposed multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling method that discover the uncover hidden topics in biomedical text documents. The two main approaches to clustering are hard clustering and fuzzy (soft) clustering. In clustering, objects are divided, and each object is a partition. MKFTM handles multikernel fuzzy view, a unique method for topic modeling, and validates over various experiment for medical documents. LDA performance is better for topic modeling, but redundancy always negatively impacts its performance. Therefore, MKFTM has the potential to deal with redundancy issues and discover more accurate topics in biomedical documents with higher performance than competitors like LDA and LSA.
Multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling (MKFTM)
The documents and words in these document are fuzzy groups in multiple clusters. Fuzzy logic is an extension of the classic 1 and 0 logic to a truth value between 1 and 0. Through MKFTM, documents and words are fuzzily clustered, with each cluster being a topic. The documents are multidistribution across topics, and clusters are the topics in these documents. MKFTM finds the different matrices of probability. The proposed MKFTM are the following steps:
Preprocessing
This step performs a preprocessing of the document input text collection. There is a lot of noise in text documents, such as word transforms, word shape transforms, special characters, punctuation marks, and stop words that add noise. Several preprocessing steps are used to clean up the text data. The punctuation is removed from the document collection. Text data is converted to lowercase and documents are tokenized. After that, short, empty words with fewer characters are removed. Also, the words are normalized through the Porter Stemmer [38].
Bagofwords (BOW) and term weighting
The bagofwords model represents text documents and extracts features from text documents for machine learning algorithms. BOW is a systematic method for calculating document words count [39]. After collecting and preprocessing the document's text, the BOW model is applied. BOW model converts unstructured text data into wordbased structured data, ignoring the grammar in information retrieval [40]. The \({\varvec{m}}\) documents contain the word \({\varvec{k}}\) finding the association between words and document. Also, the frequency of \({\varvec{k}}\) words in documents \({\varvec{m}}\) is calculated. Equation 1 represent the words \({\varvec{k}}\) frequencies in documents \({\varvec{m}}\). The \({\varvec{k}}^{{\varvec{n}}}\) means the words \({\varvec{k}}\) count in \({\varvec{n}}\) documents. The \({\varvec{n}}_{{\varvec{i,j}}}\) means the count of words in matrix \({\varvec{i}},{\varvec{j}}\). The \({\varvec{k}}_{{\varvec{j}}}\) means numbers that the numbers of words count in rows. The \({\varvec{tf}}\) is term frequency.
Local terms are weighted after applying BOW and the term frequency method is another local term method. The term frequency [41] evaluate evaluates the frequency with which the term appears in a document. Because each document is of different lengths, more terms may appear in longer documents than shorter ones. Equation 2 shows a typical weighting term that uses a vector field of normalization coefficients. The term weight, which reduces these terms, is essential and assigned \(w_{dk}\) that constantly varies from 0 to 1. Here, \(d\) represents a document, k defines the term and \(w_{dk}\) means k terms of d documents in words w. Weight is used in the most important terms and zero is used in the least important terms. In some cases, the use of a standard weight assignment may be useful, and the weighting term depends on many impacts on the weights, using different terms individually within each vector.
This shows the weight \(w\) of the \(k\) term. If a term index \(k_{i}\) frequency \(f_{i,j}\) appear in the document \(d_{j}\), the general frequency \(F_{i}\) of the k terms is welldefined in Eq. 3.
\(N\) is a numbers of document in a large set of text corpus. The frequency of document term kiki refers to the number of \(n_{i}\) documents occurrence and ni < Fi.
Fusion probabilistic inverse document frequency (FPIDF)
The weight of global term (GTW) is estimated at this stage. GTW provide "discrimination values" for all terms. The less frequent terms in document collection are more discriminating [42]. The \(tf_{ij}\) symbol determine the number of time word \(i\) appears in document j. The number of documents is indicated by \(N\) and \(n_{i}\) is total number of documents appearing in the \(i\) term. GTW is calculated by finding the b(tfij) and Pij using Eq. 4, 5.
The b(tfij) and Pij are used to calculate the fusion probabilistic inverse document frequency. We proposed a FPIDF by combining the hybrid inverse documents frequency \(\left( {{\text{Hybrid}}  {\text{IDF}}} \right)\) and probabilistic Inverse documents frequency \(\left( {{\text{Probablistic}}  {\text{IDF}}_{ } } \right)\) for weighting global term. Equations 6 and 7 show the formula for \({\text{Hybrid}}  {\text{IDF}}\) and \({\text{Probablistic}}  {\text{IDF}}_{ }\).
Use the product property of logarithms, \({\text{log}}_{{\text{b}}} {\text{x}} + {\text{log}}_{{\mathrm{b}}} {\text{y}} = {\text{log}}_{{\mathrm{b}}} {\text{xy}}\).
Combine \(\max _{{\left\{ {{\text{t}}^{{\prime }} \in {\text{d}}} \right\}{\text{n}}_{{{\text{t}}^{{\prime }} }} }}\) and \(\frac{{\text{N}}}{{{\mathrm{n}}_{{\text{t}}} }}\)
Multiply \(\frac{{\max _{{\left\{ {{\text{t}}^{{\prime }} \in {\text{d}}} \right\}{\text{n}}_{{{\text{t}}^{{\prime }} }} }} {\text{N}}}}{{{\mathrm{n}}_{{\text{t}}} }}\,\,{\text{and}}\,\,\frac{{{\text{N}}  {\text{n}}_{{\text{t}}} }}{{{\mathrm{n}}_{{\text{t}}} }}\)
Raise \({\text{n}}_{{\text{t}}}\) to the power of 1.
Raise \({\text{n}}_{{\text{t}}}\) to the power of 1.
Use the power rule \({\text{a}}^{{\text{m}}} {\text{a}}^{{\text{n}}} = {\text{a}}^{{{\text{m}} + {\text{n}}}}\) to combine exponents.
Add 1 and 1. We proposed a FPIDF in Eq. 15.
Principal component analysis (PCA)
After the FPIDF global terms weighting method, the PCA is used. The PCA [43] technique has been used to avoid largescale adverse effects in the weighting of global terms. This method removes redundant dimensions from the data and retains only the most important data dimensions. The PCA calculates the new variable that refers to the principal component, resulting from the integrated integration of the initial variables.
Multiple Kernel fuzzy Cmeans clustering
At this step, the multiple kernel fuzzy cmeans clustering algorithm [44] is used for fuzzily group documents, which is represented by GTW method. In multiple kernel fuzzy cmeans clustering algorithm B is a data point,\({\text{Y}} = \left\{ {{\text{Y}}_{{\text{i}}} } \right\}_{{{\text{i}} = 1}}^{{\text{B}}}\), kernel function \(\left\{ {{\text{G}}_{{\text{g}}} } \right\}_{{{\text{g}} = 1}}^{{\text{S}}}\), numbers of desired clusters are F and output membership matrix \({\text{V}} = \left\{ {{\text{v}}_{{{\text{if}}}} } \right\}_{{{\text{i}},{\text{f}} = 1}}^{{{\text{B}},{\text{F}}}}\) with weight \(\left\{ {{\text{Z}}_{{\text{g}}} } \right\}_{{{\text{g}} = 1}}^{{\text{S}}}\) for kernels. The multiple kernel fuzzy cmeans have the following steps:

1:
Procedure multiple kernel fuzzy cmeans MKFCM (Data Y, Clusters F, Kernels \(\left\{ {Z_{g} } \right\}_{g = 1}^{S}\))

2:
Membership matrix initialization \(V^{\left( 0 \right)}\).

3:
Repeat

4:
\(\overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{v}_{if}^{l} = \frac{{u_{ic}^{{(l)^{s} }} }}{{\mathop \sum \nolimits_{i = 1}^{B} v_{if}^{{(l)^{s} }} }}\), \(\triangleright\) Calculate the normalized membership.

5:
\(\triangleright\) Calculate Coefficients Eq. 16
\({\upalpha }_{{{\text{ifg}}}} = {\text{G}}_{{\text{g}}} \left( {{\text{y}}_{{\text{i}}} ,{\text{y}}_{{\text{i}}} } \right)  2\mathop \sum \limits_{{{\text{J}} = 1}}^{{\text{B}}} \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{\text{v}}_{{{\text{jf}}}} {\text{G}}_{{\text{g}}} \left( {{\text{y}}_{{\text{i}}} ,{\text{y}}_{{\text{j}}} } \right) + \mathop \sum \limits_{{{\text{j}} = 1}}^{{\text{B}}} \mathop \sum \limits_{{{\text{j}}^{\prime} = 1}}^{{\text{B}}} \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{\text{v}}_{{{\text{jf}}}} \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{\text{v}}_{{{\text{j}}^{{\prime }} {\text{f}}}} {\text{G}}_{{\text{g}}} \left( {{\text{y}}_{{\text{j}}} ,{\text{y}}_{{{\text{j}}^{{\prime }} }} } \right)\quad (16)\)

6:
for (i = 1…B; f = 1..F; g = 1..S) do

7:
$$\alpha_{ifg} \mathop \leftarrow \limits^{\quad \quad } G_{g} (y_{i} ,y_{i} )  2\mathop \sum \limits_{J = 1}^{B} \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{v}_{jc} G_{g} \left( {y_{i} ,y_{j} } \right) + \mathop \sum \limits_{j = 1}^{B} \mathop \sum \limits_{{j^{\prime} = 1}}^{B} \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{v}_{jf} \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{v}_{{j^{{\prime }} f}} G_{g} \left( {y_{j} ,y_{{j^{{\prime }} }} } \right)\quad (17)$$

8:
end for

9:
\(\triangleright\) Calculate coefficient by Eq. 18.

10:
for (g = 1…S) do

11:
$$\beta_{k} \leftarrow \mathop \sum \limits_{i = 1}^{B} \mathop \sum \limits_{f = 1}^{F} \left( {v_{if}^{(l)} } \right)^{s} \alpha_{ifg} \quad (18)$$

12:
end for

13:
\(\triangleright\) Update weights by Eq. 19.

14:
for (g = 1…S) do

15:
\(z_{g}^{(l)} \leftarrow \frac{{\frac{1}{{\beta_{g} }}}}{{\frac{1}{{\beta_{1} }} + \frac{1}{{\beta_{2} }} \cdots \frac{1}{{\beta_{S} }}}}\quad (19)\)
end for

16:
\(\triangleright\) distance calculate by Eq. 20.

17:
for (i = 1…B;c = 1..F) do

18:
$$T_{if}^{2} \leftarrow \mathop \sum \limits_{g = 1}^{S} \alpha_{ifg} \left( {z_{g}^{\left( l \right)} } \right)^{2} \quad (20)$$

19:
end for

20:
\(\triangleright\) update memberships Eq. 21

21:
for (i = 1…B;f = 1..F) do

22:
$$v_{if}^{(l)} \leftarrow \frac{1}{{\mathop \sum \nolimits_{{f^{\prime} = 1}}^{F} \left( {\frac{{D_{if}^{2} }}{{D_{{if^{\prime}}}^{2} }}} \right)^{{\frac{1}{s  1}}} }}\quad (21)$$

23:
end for

24:
until \(\left {\left {Vl  V^{l  1} } \right} \right\)< ∋

25:
return \(V^{(l)} ,\left\{ {z_{g}^{\left( l \right)} } \right\}_{g = 1}^{S}\).

26:
end procedure
Probabilistic distribution of documents
The document term matrix, along with the GTW method (matrix of words × documents), find the probability of a document P(Dj), calculated by Eq. 22. Here \(i\) represents the various documents.
Probabilistic distribution of the topics for documents
The probabilities of obtaining the \(j\) documents in the \(k\) topic are \(P(D_{j} T_{k} )\) through P(TkDj) with P(Dj), as described in Eq. 23.
Since, finding the \({ }P(D_{j} T_{k} )\), normalized the P(D,T) for each topic through Eq. 24.
Probabilistic distribution of words in documents
This step calculates the probability of a word \(i\) in the \(j\) document applying Eq. 25.
Probabilistic distribution of words in topics
The probabilities of word \(i\) in topic \(k\) \(P(W_{i} T_{k} )\) through \(P(D_{j} T_{k} )\) and P(WiDj) is calculated through Eq. 26.
Datasets
In this research, we used six stateoftheart datasets, which are publicly available. The first dataset is a medical abstract of the English scientific corpus from MuchMore Springer Bilingual Corpus,^{Footnote 1} a labeled dataset. We used two categories of journals, including the federal health standard and arthroskopie, for experimentation. Table 1 shows the statistics of datasets.

The medical abstract from MeSH categories from Ohsumed Collection^{Footnote 2} is a second labeled corpus dataset. The experiments are conducted in three categories: virus disease, bacterial infection, and mycoses.

Biotext [45] is the third dataset, containing summaries of diseases and treatments collected from Medline.

The fourth data set is GENIA corpora [46], abstracts collection from Medline papers describing the molecular biology literature.

The fifth is the redundant corpus of synthetic WSJ and is generally used in natural language processing (NLP) [47, 48].

The six datasets are health news tweets^{Footnote 3} (Tdatasets), an unlabeled dataset.
Results
Experimental performed
We performed the classification, clustering, execution time and redundancy issues for experiments. We used six stateoftheart datasets for experiments. The first two datasets Muchmore springer bilingual and Ohsumed Collection, are labeled datasets. Therefore, it's used for classification. The other two datasets Biotext and Genia are unlabeled. Hence, it's used for clustering. The redundant corpus of synthetic WSJ is used for the redundancy issue comparison because in literature this dataset is mostly consider for redundancy issue. Therefore, we used the same dataset for fair comparison. The execution time is compared to the health news tweets dataset, containing more documents.
Experimental setup
We used the laptop core i7 computer with 16 GB RAM and MATLAB software for experiments.
Baseline topic models
In this section, our proposed MKFTM topic model is compared with the stateoftheart LDA [4], LSA [5], FLSA [6] and FKTM [7] topic models. Experiments are performed for both classification and clustering. We also compare our proposed topic model with RedLDA [25] and FKTM, which are used for redundancy problems.
Classification of documents
The first classification evaluation is performed with Bayesian optimization for two datasets, including MuchMore Springer Bilingual Corpus and Ohsumed Collection. Optimization refers to searching for points to minimize functions with real value, known as objective functions. The bayes optimization is a gaussprocess objective function model that evaluates the objective functions. Bayesian optimization minimizes crossvalidation error. MATLAB fit function is used for Bayesian optimization. MKFTM performance is compared to LDA, LSA, FLSA, and Fuzzy kmeans topic models using a tenfold crossvalidation method. Document classification is performed on topic probabilities for document P(TD) through discriminant analysis machine learning classifier [49] using Bayes optimization. Discriminant analysis is described in Eq. 27
The \(\user2{\overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{y} }\) represent the expected classes and \({\varvec{k}}\) is number of classes. The \(\user2{\overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\frown}$}}{p} }({\varvec{k}}{\varvec{x}})\) is the posterior probability of class \({\varvec{k}}\) and observations x. The Cyk is the classification cost and observation \({\varvec{y}}\) with the true class \({\varvec{k}}\). The discriminant analysis classifies the document features with different topics such as 50, 100, 150 and 200. MKFTM performance of classification is measured using precision, recall, accuracy, and F1score. Precision, recall, accuracy and F1 measurements are used to verify the performance of the MKFTM. The classification results of two datasets labeled MuchMore Springer and Ohsumed are shown in Tables 2 and 3. The results of the MKFTM classification are compared with the latest LDA, LSA, FLSA and FKTM stateoftheart topic models for the biomedical text corpora.
Clustering of documents
The clustering performance is measured in two datasets, Genia and Biotext. Document clustering is performed using the kmean clustering method of P (T  D).There are two methods for clustering validation, and internal validation method is more accurate than external validation [50]. We use the internal validation method of the CalinskiHarabasz index to evaluate multiple topics and clusters. The CalinsikiHarabasz (CH) index [51] is a widely used internal verification method. The exponent CH is the exponent relationship where cohesion is estimated at the distance from the center point as shown in Eq. 28, where k is the number of clusters and N is the total number of observations.
The CalinsikiHarabasz index can assess the reliability of all clusters by summing the mean square error. The highest CalinsikiHarabasz index shows the best results of the clustering. The CalinsikiHarabasz index gives the best results for clusters and finds the corresponding clusters that appear. Figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 shows the CH index for clustering performance in Genia and biotext datasets.
Redundancy issue
The experiment examined the influence of the redundancy problem using a WSJ synthetic redundant corpus. MKFTM versus LDA and RedLDA developed to address redundancy issues in biomedical documents [25]. LDA, RedLDA, FKLSA, Fuzzy kmeans topic model and MKFTM are trained on the same redundant WSJ synthetic corpus to compare the performance of these topic models. Table 4 shows the loglikelihood probability of WSJ dataset synthetic redundancy with topics ranging from 50 to 200.
Execution time
Health News Tweets are used to compare MKFTM runtime with LDA, LSA and FLSA. Figure 9 shows the runtime performance of MKFTM, LDA and LSA.
Discussion
The classification, clustering, redundancy issue, and execution time are used for the performance of experiments. The document classification is presented in Tables 2 and 3. Table 2 shows the classification results for the Muchmore Springer dataset. The classification results are measured with 50,100,150 and 200 numbers of topics on both datasets. MKFTM achieved 99.04%, 99.62%, 99.69%,99.61% accuracy with 50,100,150 and 200 topics on Muchmore Springer dataset. FKTM accuracy is 98.29%, 98.87%, 98.97%,98.86% with 50,100,150 and 200 topics for Muchmore Springer dataset. FLSA accuracy is higher than LDA and LSA on the Muchmore Springer dataset. FKTM accuracy is better than FLSA for the Muchmore Springer dataset. However, MKFTM achieved the highest accuracy compared to baseline topics models FKTM, FLSA, LDA, and LSA for the Muchmore Springer dataset. We also measured the precision, recall, and F1sore score for all topic models. The precision, recall, and F1sore score of FKTM is better than the FLSA on the Muchmore Springer dataset. LDA and LSA precision, recall, and F1sore values are lower than FLSA for the Muchmore Springer dataset. Overall, MKFTM attained the higher scores values for precision, recall, and F1sore for Muchmore Springer dataset. Table 3 shows the Ohsumed dataset classification results and MKFTM achieved 94.10%, 89.45%, 92.91%, 90.35% accuracy with 50,100,150, and 200 topics, respectively. For the Ohsumed dataset, FKTM accuracy is 92.35%, 87.70%, 90.16%, 88.25% for 50,100,150, and 200 topics, respectively. On the Ohsumed dataset, FLSA accuracy outperforms LDA and LSA. For the Ohsumed dataset, FKTM accuracy is highest than FLSA. However, the accuracy of MKFTM for the Ohsumed dataset is higher than the FKTM, FLSA, LDA, and LSA base topics models. In the Ohsumed dataset, FKTM outperforms FLSA in precision, recall, and F1sore. For the Ohsumed dataset, LDA and LSA values of precision, recall, and F1sore are lower than the FLSA. The precision, recall, and F1sore of MKFTM is highest than the FKTM, FLSA, LDA, and LSA. The classification results show that MKFTM performance is superior to FKTM, FLSA, LDA, and LSA for Muchmore Springer and Ohsumed datasets.
Documents clustering performance is measured using the CalinskiHarabasz index for Genia and Biotext Datasets with 50,100,150 and 200 numbers of topics. Figure 1, 2, 3 and 4 shows that the CHindex values of LDA and LSA are lower than FLSA for the Genia dataset. The FKTM CHindex values are higher than FLSA for the Genia dataset, and MKFTM CHindex values are higher than FKTM for the Genia dataset. Therefore, the clustering performance of MKFTM is highest than other topic models like FKTM, FLSA, LDA, and LSA for the Genia dataset. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 indicate that the CHindex values of LDA and LSA are lower than those of FLSA for the Genia dataset. For the Genia dataset, the FKTM CHindex values are greater than the FLSA. For the Genia dataset, MKFTM CHindex values are greater than FKTM. As a result, MKFTM outperforms other topic models for the Genia dataset, like FKTM, FLSA, LDA, and LSA in terms of clustering performance. Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8 show that the CHindex values of LDA and LSA are lower than FLSA for the Biotext dataset. For the Biotext dataset, the FKTM CHindex values are greater than the FLSA. MKFTM CHindex values are greater than FKTM for the Biotext dataset. As a result, for the Biotext dataset, MKFTM outperforms other topic models like FKTM, FLSA, LDA, and LSA for clustering. Therefore, MKFTM achieved better clustering performance for Genia and Biotext datasets.
Table 4 shows that loglikelihood for the WSJ dataset with 50, 100, 150, and 200 topics. The loglikelihood results of MKFTM are better than the FKTM, FLSA, LDA, and LSA with different topics. Therefore, MKFTM also solves the redundancy issues and achieves better performance for redundant corpora than FKTM, FLSA, LDA and LSA.
The execution time performance for the health news tweets dataset is shown in Fig. 9. The execution time performance is measured with 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 numbers of topics. The execution time of LDA and LSA is increased as the number of topics increases, but the execution time of MKFTM is stable.
Conclusion
Biomedical text is on the rise these days, while evaluating these documents is extremely important to discovering valuable sources of information. Biomedical databases like PubMed provide valuable services to scientific communities. To reveal the hidden theme structures from biomedical text document topic modeling is a famous technique. These text documents used structured to search, index, and summarize. In advanced machine learning the fuzzy methods are mostly utilized in medical imaging. The existing topic modeling method is based on linear and statistical distribution. This paper presented a new multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling (MKFTM) approach for biomedical text documents. We also proposed a new fusion probabilistic inverse document frequency. MKFTM improves the negative consequences of redundancy words for biomedical text documents and perform better than LDA and RedLDA. MKFTM also remove the sparsity problem in biomedical text documents. Experimental results indicate that MKFTM performs better in biomedical documents' classification and clustering tasks than the stateoftheart topic models LDA, LSA, FLSA and FKTM. MKFTM is a new approach to topic modeling, which has the flexibility to work with a variety of clustering and scaling techniques. Furthermore, the MKFTM method uses discrete and continuous data to extract topics from biomedical documents. The six datasets quantitative evaluation describes that MKFTM performs better than progressive baselines with significant improvements.
Availability of data and materials
All datasets generated or analysed during this study are publicly available and discussed in materials and method section.
References
National Academies of Sciences E, Medicine. Future directions for NSF advanced computing infrastructure to support US science and engineering in 2017–2020: National Academies Press; 2016.
Karami A, Gangopadhyay A, Zhou B, Kharrazi H. Flatm: A fuzzy logic approach topic model for medical documents. In: 2015 Annual Conference of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society (NAFIPS) held jointly with 2015 5th World Conference on Soft Computing (WConSC): 2015. IEEE, pp. 1–6.
Das AB, Ramamoorthy A. Coded sparse matrix computation schemes that leverage partial stragglers. In: 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT): 2021. IEEE, pp. 1570–1575.
Blei DM, Ng AY, Jordan M. Latent dirichlet allocation. J Mach Learn Res. 2003;3:993–1022.
Dumais ST. Latent semantic analysis. Annu Rev Inf Sci Technol. 2004;38(1):188–230.
Karami A, Gangopadhyay A, Zhou B, Kharrazi H. Fuzzy approach topic discovery in health and medical corpora. Int J Fuzzy Syst. 2018;20(4):1334–45.
Rashid J, Shah SMA, Irtaza A, Mahmood T, Nisar MW, Shafiq M, Gardezi A. Topic modeling technique for text mining over biomedical text corpora through hybrid inverse documents frequency and fuzzy kmeans clustering. IEEE Access. 2019;7:146070–80.
Sarioglu E, Choi HA, Yadav K. Clinical report classification using natural language processing and topic modeling. In: 2012 11th international conference on machine learning and applications: 2012. IEEE, pp. 204–209.
Joshi R, Prasad R, Mewada P, Saurabh P. Modified LDA approach for cluster based gene classification using Kmean method. Procedia Computer Science. 2020;171:2493–500.
Liu C, Hu R. Hot Topic Discovery across Social Networks Based on Improved LDA Model. KSII Trans Internet Inf Syst 2021;15(11).
Meng Q, Xiong H. A doctor recommendation based on graph computing and LDA topic model. Int J Comput Intell Syst. 2021;14(1):808–17.
Mustakim M, Wardoyo R, Mustofa K, Rahayu GR, Rosyidah I. Latent Dirichlet allocation for medical records topic modeling: systematic literature review. In: 2021 sixth international conference on informatics and computing (ICIC): 2021. IEEE, pp. 1–7.
Sivakami M, Thangaraj M. Ontology based text classifier for information extraction from coronavirus literature. Trends Sci. 2021;18(24):47–47.
Liang X, Li D, Song M, Madden A, Ding Y, Bu Y. Predicting biomedical relationships using the knowledge and graph embedding cascade model. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(6):e0218264.
da Silva DSM, da Silva WM, RuiZhe G, Bernardi AP, Mariano AM, Holanda M: Big data trends in bioinformatics. In: 2019 IEEE international conference on bioinformatics and biomedicine (BIBM), 2019. IEEE, pp. 1862–1867.
Shang M, Furst J, StanRaicu D. Assessment of medical reports uncertainty through topic modeling and machine learning. In: 2020 IEEE 33rd international symposium on computerbased medical systems (CBMS), 2020. IEEE, pp. 189–192.
Liu H, Tao Y, Qiu Y, Huang W, Lin H. Visual exploration of software evolution via topic modeling. J Visual 2021:1–18.
Jeong B, Yoon J, Lee JM. Social media mining for product planning: A product opportunity mining approach based on topic modeling and sentiment analysis. Int J Inf Manag. 2019;48:280–90.
Danilov G, Shifrin M, Kotik K, Ishankulov T, Orlov YN, Kulikov A, Potapov A. Artificial intelligence in neurosurgery: a systematic review using topic modeling. Part I: major research areas. Coвpeмeнныe тexнoлoгии в мeдицинe 2020, 12(5 (eng)).
Song CW, Jung H, Chung K. Development of a medical bigdata mining process using topic modeling. Clust Comput. 2019;22(1):1949–58.
Lyu JC, Le Han E, Luli GKJJomIr: COVID19 vaccine–related discussion on Twitter: topic modeling and sentiment analysis. 2021, 23(6):e24435.
Haghighi PD, Burstein F, Urquhart D, Cicuttini F. Investigating individuals’ perceptions regarding the context around the low back pain experience: topic modeling analysis of twitter data. J Med Internet Res. 2021;23(12):e26093.
Pearce WM, Flanagan K. Language abilities of Indigenous and nonIndigenous Australian children from low socioeconomic backgrounds in their first year of school. Int J Speech Lang Pathol. 2019;21(2):212–23.
Bhandari AK, Singh N, Kumar IV. Lightning search algorithmbased contextually fused multilevel image segmentation. Appl Soft Comput. 2020;91:106243.
Cohen R, Aviram I, Elhadad M, Elhadad N. Redundancyaware topic modeling for patient record notes. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(2):e87555.
Hamre KE, Ondigo BN, Hodges JS, Dutta S, Theisen M, Ayodo G, John C. Antibody correlates of protection from clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an area of low and unstable malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103(6):2174.
Albalawi R, Yeap TH, Benyoucef M. Using topic modeling methods for shorttext data: a comparative analysis. Front Artif Intell. 2020;3:42.
Yun J, Geum Y. Automated classification of patents: a topic modeling approach. Comput Ind Eng. 2020;147:106636.
Isoaho K, Gritsenko D, Mäkelä E. Topic modeling and text analysis for qualitative policy research. Policy Stud J. 2021;49(1):300–24.
Cohen R, Elhadad M, Elhadad N. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies. BMC Bioinform. 2013;14(1):1–15.
Moradi M, Dorffner G, Samwald M. Deep contextualized embeddings for quantifying the informative content in biomedical text summarization. Computer Methods Programs Biomed. 2020;184:105117.
Peng K, Yin C, Rong W, Lin C, Zhou D, Xiong Z. Named entity aware transfer learning for biomedical factoid question answering. IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021.
Yadav S, Ramesh S, Saha S, Ekbal A. Relation extraction from biomedical and clinical text: Unified multitask learning framework. IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2020.
Ruspini EH, Bezdek JC, Keller JM. Fuzzy clustering: a historical perspective. IEEE Comput Intell Mag. 2019;14(1):45–55.
GarciaDias R, Vieira S, Pinaya WHL, Mechelli A. Clustering analysis. In: Machine learning. Elsevier; 2020, pp. 227–247.
Thao NX, Ali M, Smarandache F. An intuitionistic fuzzy clustering algorithm based on a new correlation coefficient with application in medical diagnosis. J Intell Fuzzy Syst. 2019;36(1):189–98.
Youssef SM, Ashame LA, Fayed SF: A Fuzzybased Image Segmentation on Diabetic Retinopathy Model. In: 2020 international conference on communications, signal processing, and their applications (ICCSPA): 2021. IEEE, pp. 1–5.
Vijayarani S, Ilamathi J, Nithya S. Networks C: Preprocessing techniques for text miningan overview. Int J Comput Sci Commun Networks. 2015;5(1):7–16.
Zhang Y, Jin R, Zhou ZH. Understanding bagofwords model: a statistical framework. Int J Mach Learn Cybernet. 2010;1(1–4):43–52.
McCarthy D, Carroll J. Disambiguating nouns, verbs, and adjectives using automatically acquired selectional preferences. Comput Linguist. 2003;29(4):639–54.
Dogan T, Uysal AK. On term frequency factor in supervised term weighting schemes for text classification. Arab J Sci Eng. 2019;44(11):9545–60.
Croft WB, Harper DJ. Using probabilistic models of document retrieval without relevance information. J Doc 1979.
Kherif F, Latypova A: Principal component analysis. In: Machine learning. Elsevier; 2020, pp. 209–225.
Huang HC, Chuang YY, Chen CS. Multiple kernel fuzzy clustering. IEEE Trans Fuzzy Syst. 2014;20(1):120–34.
Rosario B, Hearst MA. Classifying semantic relations in bioscience texts. In: Proceedings of the 42nd annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics (ACL04), 2004, pp. 430–437.
Savova GK, Masanz JJ, Ogren PV, Zheng J, Sohn S, KipperSchuler KC, Chute CG. Mayo clinical text analysis and knowledge extraction system (cTAKES): architecture, component evaluation and applications. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2010;17(5):507–13.
Gildea D. Corpus variation and parser performance. In: Proceedings of the 2001 conference on empirical methods in natural language processing, 2001.
Tsuruoka Y, Tateishi Y, Kim JD, Ohta T, McNaught J, Ananiadou S, Tsujii J. Developing a robust partofspeech tagger for biomedical text. In: Panhellenic conference on informatics, 2005. Springer, pp. 382–392.
Lachenbruch PA, Goldstein M. Discriminant analysis. Biometrics. 1979;35:69–85.
Nerurkar P, Pavate A, Shah M, Jacob S. Performance of internal cluster validations measures for evolutionary clustering. In: Computing, communication and signal processing. Springer; 2019: 305–312.
Caliński T, Harabasz J. A dendrite method for cluster analysis. Commun Stat Theory Methods. 1974;3(1):1–27.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the editors and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions.
Funding
This research was partly supported by the Technology Development Program of MSS [No. S3033853] and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2021R1A4A1031509).
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
Conceptualization, J.R.; data curation, J.R., J.K., A.H; formal analysis, J.R., J.K. and A.H.; funding acquisition, J.K. and J.R.; investigation, J.R., J.K., A.H., U.N., S.J.; methodology, J.R.; project administration, J.R, J.K and A.H; resources, J.R., J.K., A.H., U.N., S.J.; software, J.R., J.K., A.H., U.N., S.J; validation, J.R.; visualization, J.R., J.K. and A.H.; writing—original draft, J.R.; writing—review and editing, J.R., J.K. and A.H.,
Corresponding author
Ethics declarations
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Not applicable.
Consent for publication
Not applicable.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Additional information
Publisher's Note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
About this article
Cite this article
Rashid, J., Kim, J., Hussain, A. et al. A novel multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling technique for biomedical data. BMC Bioinformatics 23, 275 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859022047801
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859022047801
Keywords
 Topic modeling
 Medical data
 Multiple kernel fuzzy topic modeling
 MKFTM
 Classification
 Clustering