- Proceedings
- Open Access
Mapping proteins in the presence of paralogs using units of coevolution
- Mohammed El-Kebir†^{1, 2}Email author,
- Tobias Marschall†^{1},
- Inken Wohlers†^{1, 3},
- Murray Patterson^{1},
- Jaap Heringa^{2},
- Alexander Schönhuth†^{1} and
- Gunnar W Klau†^{1}Email author
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-14-S15-S18
© El-Kebir et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Published: 15 October 2013
Abstract
Background
We study the problem of mapping proteins between two protein families in the presence of paralogs. This problem occurs as a difficult subproblem in coevolution-based computational approaches for protein-protein interaction prediction.
Results
Similar to prior approaches, our method is based on the idea that coevolution implies equal rates of sequence evolution among the interacting proteins, and we provide a first attempt to quantify this notion in a formal statistical manner. We call the units that are central to this quantification scheme the units of coevolution. A unit consists of two mapped protein pairs and its score quantifies the coevolution of the pairs. This quantification allows us to provide a maximum likelihood formulation of the paralog mapping problem and to cast it into a binary quadratic programming formulation.
Conclusion
CUPID, our software tool based on a Lagrangian relaxation of this formulation, makes it, for the first time, possible to compute state-of-the-art quality pairings in a few minutes of runtime. In summary, we suggest a novel alternative to the earlier available approaches, which is statistically sound and computationally feasible.
Keywords
- Maximum Cardinality
- Optimal Score
- Network Alignment
- Bipartite Match
- Generative Statistical Model
Introduction
Protein-protein interactions are essential for understanding cellular mechanisms and their malfunctioning in disease [1]. Both experimental and computational methods exist for their prediction [2]. Among the latter, many are based on the observation that interacting proteins often have coevolved due to a positive selection pressure on preserving the interaction [3–6]. This observation allows to predict protein-protein interactions by quantifying the degree of similarity between the evolution of two protein families. Coevolution-based methods map proteins across the families in order to maximize a similarity measure between the phylogenetic trees or the underlying distance matrices. In settings with only orthologous proteins (e.g. [7], a study on coevolution in prokaryotes), the mapping task is trivial as every protein family contains only one protein per species. In the presence of paralogous proteins (paralogs), however, the mapping task becomes difficult.
There are only a handful of existing approaches for the paralog mapping problem [8–10]. Izarzugaza et al. [8], in their method TAG-TSEMA, and most earlier approaches establish mappings by swapping rows and columns of the distance matrices to achieve similarity between the matrices. Tillier et al. [9] take a different approach in their method MMM by heuristically determining submatrices of the two distance matrices to be paired. The recent approach TreeTop by Hajirasouliha et al. [10] computes mappings by comparing two phylogenetic trees derived from the multiple sequence alignments using dynamic programming. Compared to the matrix-based method [8] this yields a speed-up of several orders of magnitude, which, however, comes at the expense of significantly reduced, incomplete mappings.
Here, we present a new mathematical model and method, which are based on statistically quantifying the degree of coevolution reflected by a mapping. Similar to prior approaches, our method is based on the idea that coevolution implies equal rates of sequence evolution among the interacting proteins, and we provide a first attempt to quantify this notion in a formal statistical manner. We call the units that are central to this quantification scheme the units of coevolution. A unit consists of two mapped protein pairs and its score quantifies the coevolution of the pairs. The quality of a mapping is then rated in terms of the units of coevolution it consists of. We establish and exploit a connection to the global network alignment problem and are thus able to find provably near-optimal or optimal mappings. Due to the design of our quality scores, an optimal mapping corresponds to a maximum likelihood estimate of a generative statistical model built upon the participating units of coevolution. We extend a recent Lagrangian relaxation approach for network alignment [11] to deal with the new scoring scheme. We apply our method to an approved benchmark of coevolving protein domains. In terms of recall and precision, we outperform MMM, perform better than TreeTop and slightly better than TAG-TSEMA. In terms of runtime, we outperform TAG-TSEMA by an order of magnitude, are faster than MMM and much slower than TreeTop.
Our software tool CUPID (Coevolution Units Paralog Interaction Detector) as well as all data and scripts to reproduce the results are freely available as part of the NINA project for network analysis and integration at http://www.cwi.nl/research/nina.
Mathematical model
Units of coevolution
Maximum likelihood maximum cardinality matchings
In the following, we provide a formal definition of units of coevolution. Based on this, we develop a statistical model that can be interpreted as generating units of coevolution and that is parameterized by matchings. Determining an optimal matching then translates to determining the maximum likelihood estimate of the observed data. To do this, we need the following notation:
Definition 1 (Matching graph) Let A and B be protein families whose members v ∈ A ∪ B are labeled by their species s(v). The matching graph is a bipartite graph G = (A ∪ B, E) where E = {(a, b) ∈ A × B | s(a) = s(b)}.
Now, we define our search space as follows.
Definition 2 (Search space) The search space Θ is the set of matchings of maximum cardinality n.
Next, we develop a parametrized statistical model whose parameters can be identified with the search space Θ. As pointed out above, a maximum likelihood estimate θ* ∈ Θ then corresponds to an optimal matching and hence an optimal pairing of putatively coevolving family members. Let ∆_{ A }(a, a') be the number of sequence mismatches between a and a' and let ℓ_{ A }(a, a') be the number of sequence matches and mismatches between a and a' in the multiple alignment A. See Figure 1 for an example.
where H is the assumption of equal evolutionary rates due to coevolution.
Definition 3 (Unit of coevolution) We refer to (1) as the value of the unit of coevolution ((a, b), (a', b')).
where "<" is an arbitrary ordering on E.
which one can -- as the (harmonic) mean of all units of coevolution (a, b) takes part in -- interpret as a measure for the degree of coevolution of the individual pair (a, b). It is now reasonable to believe that the degrees of coevolution of (a, b) and (a', b') are independent of one another: This clearly applies if the two pairs stem from two different species (that is, a is orthologous to a' and b is orthologous to b'), because there is usually no genetic crosstalk across species, at least not in eukaryotes. Even in the case of a being paralogous to a' and b being paralogous to b', the assumption of independence may be reasonable, because paralogs often assume functions that considerably diverge from their paralogous partners, hence are subject to independent selective pressures. So, one can decompose (2) into factors, for which the assumption of independency makes sense, while each factor has a reasonable interpretation. This may justify the assumption of independency overall.
The problem is now as follows.
Method
Constraints (4) and (5) are the standard constraints for bipartite matching. Equality (6) ensures that the matching will have maximum cardinality. Constraints (7) ensure that only proteins of the same species are mapped. The quadratic objective function scores the contribution of units of coevolution, which may consist of protein pairs that belong to different species. We formally show how to transform this integer linear programming formulation into a well-studied formulation used for the Quadratic Assignment Problem [13] and for network alignment [11, 14].
(BQP-1) and (BQP-2) are the same as shown in the following lemma.
Lemma 1 A solution θ ∈ Θ is optimal to (BQP-1) if and only if it is optimal to (BQP-2). Furthermore, the objective value of θ in (BQP-1) is equal to the objective value of θ in (BQP-2).
Proof. Let θ_{1} be an optimal solution to (BQP-1) and θ_{2} an optimal solution to (BQP-2). Let G = (A ∪ B, E) be the matching graph as introduced in Def. 1.
We start by showing that |θ_{1}| = |θ_{2}| = n. By constraint (6), we have that |θ_{1}| = n. To prove |θ_{2}| = n, we recall that G consists of connected components induced by A_{ t } ∪ B_{ t } for t ∈ S, each of which is a complete bipartite subgraph. Suppose that θ_{2} is not maximal, i.e., |θ_{2}| <n. Observe that every component A_{ t } ∪ B_{ t } can have at most min{|A_{ t }|, |B_{ t }|} matched nodes in θ_{2}. As $n={\sum}_{t\in S}\mathsf{\text{min}}\left\{\left|{A}_{t}\right|,\left|{B}_{t}\right|\right\}$ and |θ_{2}| <n, there must exist a component t with unmatched nodes a ∈ A_{ t } and b ∈ B_{ t }. Since f_{ ijkl } + K > 0 for all quadruples ((i, j), (k, l)) with i <j and k ≠ l, we have that θ_{2} is not an optimal solution for (BQP-2) as including (a, b) in the matching would result in a matching with a greater objective value. Therefore, it follows that |θ_{1}| = |θ_{2}| = n.
As |θ_{1}| = |θ_{2}| = n, the above equality also holds for matchings θ_{1} and θ_{2}. In addition, θ_{1} is by definition feasible to (BQP-2). Conversely, θ_{2} is feasible to (BQP-1) as |θ_{2}| = n. Therefore, we have that optimal solutions to (BQP-1) and (BQP-2) have equal objective values. QED
Our starting point for the Lagrangian relaxation is (BQP-2) where the weights assigned to the quadruples are strictly positive. We obtain the relaxation along the same lines as in [11]. The main resulting theorem is as follows.
Theorem 1 Let $m=\left({\displaystyle \underset{2}{{\text{\u2211}}_{\text{t\u2208s}}\text{|}{\text{A}}_{\text{t}}\text{|\u22c5|}{\text{B}}_{\text{t}}\text{|}}}\right).$ For any $\lambda \in {\mathbb{R}}^{m}$, an upper bound on (BQP-2) is given by
and where w_{ ijkl } = (f_{ ijkl } + K)/2. The upper bound Z_{LD}(λ) $\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\mathcal{O}$can be computed in time (n^{5}).
In the theorem above each variable y_{ ijkl } refers to a unit of coevolution. Since (BQP-2) is the formulation used for global network alignment in [14] and [11], upper bound and runtime follow directly from the proof given in [11]. We obtain solutions to (LD_{ λ }) and $\left({\mathsf{\text{LD}}}_{\lambda}^{ik}\right)$ by solving the corresponding maximum weight bipartite matching problems. From a solution (x, y) to (LD_{ λ }), we compute a feasible solution to (BQP-2) by using the matching encoded in x whose score is a lower bound on the value of the optimal solution to (BQP-2). The goal now is to identify λ* which results in the smallest gap between upper and lower bound. We do this using a hybrid procedure combining subgradient optimization and a specially crafted dual descent scheme. For details we refer again to [11].
Results
Benchmark data set
Designing a large benchmark data set for our problem is difficult as there is insufficient information on the interaction between the individual members of protein families and the correct mapping of paralogs is thus usually unknown. We therefore rely on the reference data set of Izarzugaza et al. [8] in which the protein families are in fact domain families and the type of interaction is the co-occurrence in the same protein chain. The task is to determine a correct matching between protein domains of the same species. In this benchmark, a correct matching maps only domains that occur in the same protein chain and are therefore known to coevolve. Izarzugaza et al. [8] compiled the data set by first selecting Pfam [15] domains that co-occur in known yeast proteins and then took from these domains all eukaryotic sequences present in SwissProt which are not labeled "fragment", "hypothetic" or "putative". Finally they selected those domain pairs which (i) per family cover at least four species with at least three sequences each, (ii) in which at least 15 sequences are mapped, i.e., co-occur in a protein chain, and (iii) which have at least 50% of the sequences of the domain with fewest members mapped. The resulting benchmark instances comprise 488 pairs of multiple sequence alignments of domain families whose domains co-occur in the same protein chain. The total number of domain families in the benchmark is 604 and the number of domains per domain family ranges from 21 up to 212.
In previous work, phylogenetic trees were constructed from the alignments and either the trees themselves [10] or the distance matrices derived from them [8, 9] were compared. In contrast, our algorithm uses data from the multiple alignments directly for scoring, as detailed in the Mathematical Model section. In addition to the alignments, the species from which each sequence originates is provided as input to the algorithms. We ran the experiments for CUPID and MMM on a 2.26 GHz processor with 24 GB of RAM, running 64-bit Linux. For MMM we vary the allowance parameter a between 0.1 and 0.5. For TAG-TSEMA and TreeTop we took the numbers from [10]. Note that TAG-TSEMA was run on one of the fastest supercomputers at the time (2007/8). TreeTop was run on a similar machine as used for CUPID.
Recall and precision
For each instance, we compute the recall and precision of the predicted matching with respect to the reference solution, which is the largest matching in which only domains of the same protein are paired, i.e., domains that are known to coevolve. Recall is defined as the percentage of correctly predicted pairings with respect to the cardinality of the reference solution. Precision is defined as the number of correctly predicted pairings divided by the cardinality of the predicted solution.
Solution quality and runtime
Recall | Precision | Runtime | #Instances | |
---|---|---|---|---|
TAG-TSEMA [8] | 56 % | 45 % | 730 h | 488 |
TreeTop [10] | 38 % | 48 % | 0.02 h | 488 |
CUPID | 56 % | 50 % | 30 h | 488 |
MMM, a = 0.1 [9] | 6 % | 35 % | 55 h | 488 |
MMM, a = 0.2 [9] | 15 % [61 %] | 46 % [55 %] | 121 h | 394 |
MMM, a = 0.3 [9] | 26 % [70 %] | 57 % [64 %] | 250 h | 270 |
MMM, a = 0.4 [9] | 35 % [71 %] | 53 % [65 %] | 323 h | 214 |
MMM, a = 0.5 [9] | 37 % [70 %] | 44 % [65 %] | 363 h | 149 |
Effect of time limit on solution quality of CUPID.
Time limit | 10 sec | 30 sec | 1 min | 5 min | 10 min | 20 min |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Total runtime | 1.3 h | 3.8 h | 7.3 h | 30.2 h | 51.6 h | 81.0 h |
Precision | 46.8 % | 47.8 % | 48.2 % | 49.6 % | 49.8 % | 50.3 % |
Recall | 52.6 % | 53.7 % | 54.4 % | 55.9 % | 56.2 % | 56.7 % |
Median relative gap size | 10.4 % | 5.4 % | 3.1 % | 2.1 % | 1.7 % | 1.3 % |
Instances solved to optimality | 6.1 % | 9.4 % | 11.9 % | 16.0 % | 16.8 % | 17.0 % |
Scoring function assessment
For instances below the bisecting line, our matching has smaller average log likelihood than the reference matching. For 64 out of the 488 instances, this applies with a difference in log likelihood of more than 0.5. This can have two reasons. First, CUPID might fail to compute a good matching, which is possible if the gap is large. Indeed, 27 out of these 64 instances have a relative gap larger than 20 %, see Figure 3b. The second reason for a reference log likelihood larger than our solution's log likelihood lies in different cardinalities of the reference matching and our solution. In these instances, a smaller matching size leads to a larger average log likelihood. Since CUPID determines maximum cardinality matchings, it cannot obtain an average log likelihood as large as the one of the reference matching, even if it solves an instance to optimality. The performance on these instances can only be improved by allowing for smaller matchings.
Instances for which the average log likelihood of our solution is larger than the average log likelihood of the reference matching are located above the bisecting line in Figure 3. For 127 out of the 488 instances, this applies with a difference in log likelihood of more than 0.5. These are instances for which the reference matching is not the matching with the highest likelihood according to the data. This can have two reasons. First, our maximum likelihood model might need to be refined. Second, the data, i.e. the multiple alignments, might be insufficient or not accurate enough to distinguish a correct from an incorrect matching. We consider the latter issue to be the more significant one as obtaining multiple alignments that accurately reflect evolutionary history is a difficult problem.
Instances close to the bisecting line are favorable instances for our scoring and algorithm. There the solution and reference matchings have similar log likelihood. In total, for 297 of the 488 instances, the difference between these two log likelihoods is at most 0.5. These are the instances for which we indeed obtain a large recall as indicated in Figure 3a by the accumulation of red points near the bisecting line. In fact, these 297 instances have an average recall of 62.5 % while it is 46.3 % for the remaining instances, which is a significant difference (p < 10^{-10} according to a Wilcoxon test).
Conclusions and discussion
In this article, we introduce a novel approach for predicting a matching of proteins in the presence of paralogs given multiple sequence alignments of two protein families. Our line of reasoning is centered around units of coevolution, which we identify as the minimal units of evidence for coevolution. Several properties distinguish our approach CUPID from previous ones. First, we employ a generative statistical model and score putative matchings based on their likelihood. Second, we make use of a close connection to the network alignment problem to compute provably near-maximum or maximum likelihood matchings. We observe a median relative tightness of these bounds as small as 2.1% while limiting the runtime to at most 5 minutes per instance. Third, on a commonly-used benchmark data set, CUPID performs better than three state-of-the-art methods in terms of recall and precision.
Bounds on the optimal score facilitate drawing conclusions on the quality of the scoring function. We can attribute false predictions to weaknesses of the scoring function, while for heuristic methods they could also be caused by a failure to find a good, high-scoring solution.
Our analysis shows that for many instances a matching that does not have maximum cardinality will likely result in a larger average log likelihood for a unit of coevolution. Further, reference matchings usually do not have maximum cardinality. Recall and especially precision of the predicted matching can thus be improved by allowing matchings of smaller cardinality. This could be addressed, for example, by introducing constraints into our optimization scheme that influence the matching size. Subsequently, one could apply model selection approaches to predict the size of the true matching.
So far, we have restricted ourselves to the quantities ∆_{ A }(a, a') and ℓ_{ A }(a, a') to assess sequence identity, as done previously. The corresponding scoring model is very simple and depends greatly on the quality of the underlying multiple sequence alignment, which is error-prone. We therefore consider exploring the effect of using different alignment methods and other, more fine-grained, scoring models as an interesting topic for future research. For example, we expect that results improve if alignment features such as secondary structure, amino acid substitution type or alignment confidence (using e.g. the head-or-tails [16] or GUIDANCE score [17]) are quantified and considered during the mapping. By doing so, relatively well-conserved alignment regions that are likely to participate in an interaction that is shared family-wide are upweighted. Using our current model, we could straightforwardly use only selected alignment columns for scoring a unit of coevolution, for example those with alignment confidence higher than a threshold. In order to weigh alignment columns, the scoring model would need to be revised.
Inspired by a discussion in Tillier et al. [9], another possible extension is to allow many-to-many instead of only one-to-one mappings. The scoring based on units of coevolution could immediately be adapted to such a situation. However, adapting the Lagrangian relaxation approach is less straightforward and requires more effort.
As a closing remark, we recall that mapping paralogs is only a small ingredient to the successful prediction of protein-protein interaction networks, which remains a challenging and interesting field of research.
Notes
Declarations
Acknowledgements
We thank SARA Computing and Networking Services (http://www.surfsara.nl) for their support in using the Lisa Compute Cluster. We also thank the anonymous referees for their insightful comments and Elisabeth Tillier for valuable help with MMM.
Declarations
Publication of this article was funded by Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica.
This article has been published as part of BMC Bioinformatics Volume 14 Supplement 15, 2013: Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Research in Computational Molecular Biology (RECOMB) Satellite Workshop on Comparative Genomics. The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcbioinformatics/supplements/14/S15.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
- Ideker T, Sharan R: Protein networks in disease. Genome Research. 2008, 18: 644-652. 10.1101/gr.071852.107.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Uetz P, Finley RL: From protein networks to biological systems. FEBS letters. 2005, 579 (8): 1821-1827. 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.02.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fryxell KJ: The coevolution of gene family trees. Trends in Genetics. 1996, 12 (9): 364-369.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Kesteren RE, Tensen CP, Smit AB, van Minnen J, Kolakowski LF, Meyerhof W, Richter D, van Heerikhuizen H, Vreugdenhil E, Geraerts WP: Co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs in the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily of bioactive peptides. J Biol Chem. 1996, 271 (7): 3619-3626. 10.1074/jbc.271.7.3619.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen O, Ashkenazy H, Burstein D, Pupko T: Uncovering the co-evolutionary network among prokaryotic genes. Bioinformatics. 2012, 28: i389-i394. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts396. ECCB 2012PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yeang CH, Haussler D: Detecting coevolution in and among protein domains. PLoS Computational Biology. 2007, 3 (11): e211-10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030211.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Juan D, Pazos F, Valencia A: High-confidence prediction of global interactomes based on genome-wide coevolutionary networks. Proc of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008, 105 (3): 934-939. 10.1073/pnas.0709671105.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Izarzugaza JMG, Juan D, Pons C, Pazos F, Valencia A: Enhancing the prediction of protein pairings between interacting families using orthology information. BMC Bioinformatics. 2008, 9: 35-10.1186/1471-2105-9-35.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tillier ERM, Charlebois RL: The human protein coevolution network. Genome Research. 2009, 19 (10): 1861-1871. 10.1101/gr.092452.109.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hajirasouliha I, Schönhuth A, de Juan D, Valencia A, Sahinalp SC: Mirroring co-evolving trees in the light of their topologies. Bioinformatics. 2012, 28 (9): 1202-1208. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts109.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- El-Kebir M, Heringa J, Klau GW: Lagrangian relaxation applied to sparse global network alignment. Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics (PRIB 2011), Volume 7036 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2011, Springer, 225-236.Google Scholar
- Pazos F, Valencia A: Similarity of phylogenetic trees as indicator of protein-protein interaction. Protein Engineering. 2001, 14 (9): 609-614. 10.1093/protein/14.9.609.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garey M, Johnson D: Computers and Intractability. 1979, FreemanGoogle Scholar
- Klau GW: A new graph-based method for pairwise global network alignment. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009, 10 (Suppl 1): S59-10.1186/1471-2105-10-S1-S59.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bateman A, Coin L, Durbin R, Finn RD, Hollich V, Griffiths-Jones S, Khanna A, Marshall M, Moxon S, Sonnhammer EL, Studholme DJ, Yeats C, Eddy SR: The Pfam protein families database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32 (Database): 138-141.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Landan G, Graur D: Heads or tails: a simple reliability check for multiple sequence alignments. Mol Biol Evol. 2007, 24 (6): 1380-1383. 10.1093/molbev/msm060.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Penn O, Privman E, Landan G, Graur D, Pupko T: An alignment confidence score capturing robustness to guide tree uncertainty. Mol Biol Evol. 2010, 27 (8): 1759-1767. 10.1093/molbev/msq066.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
Copyright
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.