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BMC Bioinformatics

Open Access

Analysis of effect of congenic mice on the gene expression under genomic background of BALB/c mice

  • Yan Jiao1, 2,
  • Xiaoyun Liu2,
  • Yanhong Cao2, 3,
  • Nan Deng4,
  • Yonghui Ma2,
  • Karen A Hasty2,
  • John M Stuart4, 5 and
  • Weikuan Gu2Email author
BMC Bioinformatics201415(Suppl 10):P10

https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-15-S10-P10

Published: 29 September 2014

Background

Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a major contributor to the development of immune-mediated arthritis. BALB/c mice that are homozygous for the deficiency (BALB/c-/-) spontaneously develop joint-specific inflammation that resembles human rheumatoid arthritis [1]. To understand the role of genetic factors involved in the development of spontaneous arthritis (SAD) in mice deficient in IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL_1RA), we have identified a genomic region containing a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for this disease. The QTL is on chromosome 1 and appears to be the strongest genetic region regulating arthritis [2]. To confirm the importance of this QTL in SAD, we next developed congenic mouse strains that contain the strong QTL genomic fragments from BALB/c on a DBA/1 genetic background [3] and conversely a similar genomic fragment from DBA/1 on a BALB/c background. When the DBA/1 fragment was placed on a BALB/c background, arthritis was delayed and less severe. When the BALB/c fragment was placed on a DBA/1 background, arthritis occurred in varying degrees.

Materials and methods

To further narrow down the list of potential candidate genes, we analyzed gene expression profiling on mouse whole genome scale using microarray technology. Female mice at 4 months of age from a congenic strain BALB.D1-1-/- and BALB/c-/--mice were used to generate gene expression data using the Illumina platform. The experiment for each strain was done with three replicates, each from one female mouse. Raw data were normalized with the quantile method using BeadStudio software. The DiffScore in our initial analysis was set up as ± 10, to ensure we did not miss the potential candidate genes.

Results

Our analysis of gene expression successfully produced extremely useful information. Two very important features of the result are that 1) a very small number of genes is differentially expressed between BALB.D1-1-/- and BALB/c-/-, and 2) a majority of the differentially expressed genes are located in the QTL region. There are only 12 probes that are differentially expressed between BALB.D1-1-/- and BALB/c-/-. Among the 12 differentially expressed probes, five represent known genes (Rnpep, Ifi203, Lefty1, Trbv6, Ifi202b) and three sequences are similar to Ifi genes (interferon-activatable genes, similar to Ifi204, and similar to Ifi205, Figure 9a). Among them, six probes represent genes within the QTL (Ifi203, Lefty1, Ifi202b, interferon-activatable genes, similar to Ifi204, similar to Ifi205).

Conclusions

Several important candidate genes in the molecular pathways of SAD have been identified from the mouse model.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by grants from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health (R01 AR51190 to WG) and program-directed funds from the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Mudanjiang Medical College
(2)
Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee Health Science Center
(3)
Institute of Kaschin-beck Disease, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University; Key Laboratory of Etiologic Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Heilongjiang Province & Ministry of Health (23618104)
(4)
Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center
(5)
Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center

References

  1. Zhou F, He X, Iwakura Y, Horai R, Stuart JM: Arthritis in mice that are deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is dependent on genetic background. Arthritis Rheum. 2005, 52: 3731-3738. 10.1002/art.21481.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Jiao Y, Jiao F, Yan J, Xiong Q, Shriner D, Hasty K, Stuart J, Gu W: Identifying a major locus that regulates spontaneous arthritis in IL-1ra-deficient mice and analysis of potential candidates. Genet Res (Camb). 2011, 18: 1-9.Google Scholar
  3. Cao Y, Liu X, Deng N, Jiao Y, Ma Y, Hasty KA, Stuart JM, Gu W: Congenic mice provide evidence for a genetic locus that modulates spontaneous arthritis caused by deficiency of IL-1RA. PLoS One. 2013, 8 (6): e68158-10.1371/journal.pone.0068158.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Jiao et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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