- Open Access
BioTile, A Perl based tool for the identification of differentially enriched regions in tiling microarray data
© Guintivano et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 13 November 2012
- Accepted: 22 February 2013
- Published: 3 March 2013
Genome-wide tiling array experiments are increasingly used for the analysis of DNA methylation. Because DNA methylation patterns are tissue and cell type specific, the detection of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with small effect size is a necessary feature of tiling microarray ‘peak’ finding algorithms, as cellular heterogeneity within a studied tissue may lead to a dilution of the phenotypically relevant effects. Additionally, the ability to detect short length DMRs is necessary as biologically relevant signal may occur in focused regions throughout the genome.
We present a free open-source Perl application, Binding Intensity Only Tile array analysis or “BioTile”, for the identification of differentially enriched regions (DERs) in tiling array data. The application of BioTile to non-smoothed data allows for the identification of shorter length and smaller effect-size DERs, while correcting for probe specific variation by inversely weighting on probe variance through a permutation corrected meta-analysis procedure employed at identified regions. BioTile exhibits higher power to identify significant DERs of low effect size and across shorter genomic stretches as compared to other peak finding algorithms, while not sacrificing power to detect longer DERs.
BioTile represents an easy to use analysis option applicable to multiple microarray platforms, allowing for its integration into the analysis workflow of array data analysis.
- DNA methylation
- Differentially methylated region
- Tiling microarray
Genome-wide DNA methylation studies are becoming increasingly used in search of etiological factors contributing to complex non-Mendelian disease, as the susceptibility of DNA methylation to environmental influences and its potential for metastable drift may account for complex disease features, such as a discordance of monozygotic twins, parent of origin effects, an unequal frequency of affected males and females, complex inheritance, and a late age at onset, among others [1-3]. DNA methylation changes in the brain are becoming increasingly recognized as important mediators of behavioral phenotypes in model organisms and psychiatric disease in humans [4-7].
Despite the likelihood of epigenetic changes as etiological factors contributing to psychiatric disease risk, the success of the first round of epigenomic studies has been limited . In the first epigenomic profiling studies performed in major psychosis, Mill et al. found moderate fold changes in prefrontal cortex DNA methylation. In the WDR18 glutamate receptor subunit gene, an 8% DNA methylation difference was detected between males with schizophrenia and controls, while female patients with bipolar disorder were 6% more methylated than controls at the RPL39 gene . No significant differences were found in an analysis of 50 loci in temporal cortex of schizophrenia affected individuals . A recent methylome profiling study in major depressive disorder (MDD) did not identify any significant loci after correction for multiple testing; however, they did successfully validated a 60% of the top nominally significant differences . Of these, the largest depression associated effect size was 22%.
A consistent feature of these studies is the low effect size associations detected in the brain. A probable explanation for these observations is that true disease differences exist in a subpopulation of cells that are subject to dilution by disease non-relevant cell types, a factor particularly relevant in the brain, which represents one of the most cellularly heterogeneous organs in the body. This situation calls for algorithms capable of detecting DMRs of small effect size in order to direct downstream validation and follow up functional studies, such as cell type specific analyses. In this regard, the ability of a DMR detection technique to adjust for covariates such as cellular heterogeneity, medication status, or age are of particular interest in psychiatric phenotypes but to date, few available algorithms for DMR detection allow for these adjustments.
Another factor that remains at issue is that phenotypically relevant epigenetic changes may occur over relatively small regions. A number of locus specific studies highlight the importance of short genomic regions in regulating phenotypic outcome. Epigenetic changes spanning short genomic regions have been identified in imprinting control regions, over exonic regions that may direct alternative splicing, and at transcription factor binding sites that have been associated with early life trauma exposure or major psychosis [9, 12-14]. The power to identify short DMRs is an important facet of DMR finding algorithms used in studies searching for small epigenetic aberrations conferring phenotypic variation.
The application of tiling array technology to the study of DNA methylation has greatly increased the resolution over earlier microarray based technologies and added to the potential to discover novel epigenetic changes. Tiling array experiments are based on measuring the genomic locations of enriched DNA fragments that hybridize across adjacently located probes called tiles. The experiments performed prior to hybridization involve enriching for the molecular marker of interest, either through antibody based immunoprecipitation employed in ChIP-chip , MeDIP [16, 17], or through enzymatically selecting a portion of the genome, such as with methylation sensitive restriction enzymes as is employed in numerous DNA methylome techniques [18-21]. The enriched fractions are fragmented to improve target specificity, generally to lengths of 50-200 base pairs. After microarray hybridization, the combinatorial effects of fragment binding to specific genomic locations will result in peaks of signal intensity after data processing that may be detected by downstream data analysis applications.
A number of excellent programs that contain peak finding algorithms are available for the analysis of tiling array data, some of which include Ringo , ChiPOTle , CHARM , TileMap , ACME , and MPEAK , among others. There is a large degree of variation in the statistical methods employed, the ease of use, and the versatility across multiple experiment types. For example, many of these algorithms, such as CHARM and Ringo, were designed for one type of platform, such as NimbleGen arrays, but can now be applied to other datasets. Others, such as ChiPOTle are limited in the number of probes that can be analyzed (IE: 60,000), which makes it difficult to apply to larger tiling array datasets. With the exception of CHARM, these DMR finding algorithms are confined to the investigation of group classifiers as opposed to quantitative variables such as multiple treatment doses or age and do not allow for the correction of covariates prior to peak identification and statistical evaluation.
Cumulatively, the application of tiling array analyses to DNA methylation in heterogeneous tissues, such as brain, require the ability to detect DMRs of small effect size and of short length. A simple analysis paradigm applicable to multiple microarray platforms and satisfying these requirements will add to the successful identification of phenotypically relevant epigenetic variation across a diverse range of phenotypes. To address these issues we present an open source, freely available Perl application referred to as “Binding Intensity Only Tiling array analysis” or “BioTile”. The BioTile algorithm is ideally suited to the identification of small length and low effect size DMRs, while not sacrificing power to detect longer DMRs, and is applicable across a range of tiling microarray platforms.
where m represents the slope per probe and SE2m represents the squared standard error of the slope calculated first at each ith probe then each jth probe in a DER consisting of n probes . A permutation step is implemented to control for correlation among neighboring array tiles such that diagnostic criteria are shuffled at random for a number of iterations specified by the user (default 1000) and a null distribution of meta-statistics is generated. Significance is determined by calculating the quantile of the original meta-statistic, Q, relative to the null distribution for each DER. The output of the algorithm is a list of genomic regions (DER start and stop coordinates) differentially enriched between groups, each with its corresponding mean and maximum microarray fold difference and p value that can subsequently be corrected for multiple testing. The original meta-analysis Q statistic is also supplied to enable ranking of DERs that were returned with the same p-value such that a higher Q is indicative of a higher significance.
The software tool is designed for processing and DER peak finding in normalized datasets and is meant for use following standard quality assessment and data normalization steps. Resultantly, it is compatible with all single and dual channel microarray platforms. Use of the algorithm requires only a formatted data matrix containing chromosomal coordinates as well as an annotation file denoting the comparison of interest and containing relevant covariates.
The goal of any DER peak finding algorithm should be to maximize the probability that identified DERs represent regions of true biological variation between groups and are not the result of random technical variation within the experimental system. Generally speaking, biologically relevant regions will have a higher percentage of individually significant probe signals; as such regions are more likely to result in enrichment of DNA fragments likely to hybridize to a given area. However, due to the combinatorial nature of fragments hybridizing to a series of adjacent tiles, signals will be stronger at some probes and not others, resulting in a peak in which not all individual probes are significant. Conversely, technical variation in genome-scale experiments will generally appear to be chance occurrences of single probes appearing statistically significant between groups.
In order to minimize the identification of false positives and maximize DER peak identification, BioTile employs the use of a permutation corrected meta-analysis step capable of detecting peaks comprised of as few as three adjacent probes. As BioTile identifies DERs by identifying regions where the pair wise difference between the two groups is consistently above or below zero for a stretch longer than 3 probes, if false positive signals are located within regions where background levels are in the same direction, they will be included in the list of DERs to evaluate statistically. The implementation of the meta-analytical step as compared to more traditional statistics is more robust to these situations and can lead to the identification of DERs comprised of a higher percentage of individually significant probe values, non-biased by random probes of high difference. This is because the degree to which each probe contributes to the cumulative meta-statistic of a perspective DER will be inversely weighted by its variance, and the inclusion of noisy background probe levels will reduce the meta-statistic and thus significance of spuriously generated DERs.
Comparison to available peak finding algorithms
We tested the performance of BioTile against TileMap  and CHARM  to find the randomly inserted DMRs. Due to various features of other peak finding algorithms mentioned above such as limits on dataset size, data input type, or the appropriateness of statistical outputs to the comparison of interest, only TileMap and CHARM could be properly applied to this analysis. For TileMap, we evaluated the performance of hidden Markov model based data smoothing followed by Unbalanced Mixture Subtraction (UMS) based statistical evaluation. Default values were used for genomic smoothing steps employed by CHARM. A comparison of probe specific weights derived by genomic smoothing in CHARM and through meta-analytical weighting in BioTile is depicted at a representative DMR in Figure 2b. Both CHARM and BioTile were run with 1000 permutations for internal statistical evaluation. As the data matrix represents output from preprocessed microarray data, only peak finding algorithms available for the above platforms were implemented without additional data processing or normalization. The ability of the algorithms to identify the DMRs at various effect sizes, probe lengths, and sample sizes of 5, 10,15, and 20 per group was evaluated. A ‘hidden’ DMR was considered found if it overlapped with the genomic coordinates identified as enriched by each algorithm. For all algorithms, DMRs below an FDR significance threshold of 5% were evaluated.
Area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) were generated to evaluate the sensitivity as a function of specificity of each algorithm. For BioTile and CHARM, FDR significant DMRs overlapping with hidden DMRs represented true positives (TP), non-significant non-overlapping DMRs were true negatives (TN), significant non-overlapping DMRs were false positives (FP) and non-identified hidden DMRs were false negatives (FN). BioTile generated the highest AUC of 0.92 (95% CI = 0.90-0.93, TP = 844, TN = 9,896, FP = 36, FN = 167) while CHARM generated an AUC of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.72-0.75, TP = 625, TN = 12, FP = 0, FN = 692). Because TileMap does not return a list of non-significant DMRs, we could not evaluate the AUC in the same manner. To overcome this, we evaluated each of the 100,000 probes in the simulated dataset for overlap with the significant DMRs per algorithm. The results for BioTile (AUC = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93-0.95, TP = 16,424, TN = 80,460, FP = 1,686, FN = 1,430) and CHARM (AUC = 0.75, 95% CI:0.73-0.75. TP = 9,015, TN = 81,678, FP = 468, FN = 8,839) were consistent with the previous analysis, while TileMap (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.73-0.77, TP = 9,462, TN = 82,139, FP = 7, FN = 8,392) performed similarly to CHARM (Additional file 5: Figure S2). The cumulative results suggest that BioTile out performs TileMap and CHARM at the identification of hidden DMRs.
BioTile vs. TileMap
BioTile vs. CHARM
OR = 0.05, p = 4.6 × 10-182
OR = 0.60, p = 1.2 × 10-03
OR = 5.45, p = 5.1 × 10-81
OR = 14.66, p = 1.1 × 10-196
OR = 8.34, p = 1.7 × 10-112
OR = 9.83, p = 5.9 × 10-132
OR = 5.17, p = 7.7 × 10-52
OR = 11.70, p = 4.2 × 10-133
DMR length (# probes)
OR = 11.39, p = 8.9 × 10-29
OR = 20.14, p = 7.2 × 10-40
OR = 3.64, p = 1.1 × 10-07
OR = 19.92, p = 2.6 × 10-39
OR = 4.86, p = 1.0 × 10-08
OR = 17.82, p = 2.6 × 10-32
OR = 9.25, p = 2.4 × 10-09
OR = 22.21, p = 2.4 × 10-22
OR = 3.65, p = 1.2 × 10-04
OR = 7.12, p = 3.5 × 10-11
OR = 18.65, p = 2.2 × 10-08
OR = 29.94, p = 2.9 × 10-13
Log 2 fold change
OR = 4.93, p = 7.7 × 10-19
OR = 5.18, p = 7.0 × 10-20
OR = 7.26, p = 1.1 × 10-14
OR = 18.17, p = 1.8 × 10-33
OR = 20.17, p = 1.1 × 10-10
OR = 41.03, p = 2.4 × 10-18
OR = 7.90, p = 5.0 × 10-08
OR = 43.53, p = 3.5 × 10-41
OR = 55.96, p = 2.9 × 10-14
OR = 194.39, p = 1.9 × 10-41
OR = Inf, p = 1.4 × 10-03
OR = Inf, p = 4.0 × 10-07
BioTile was the only algorithm to exhibit greater than 80% power to identify small DMRs (five probes). At all probe lengths evaluated, BioTile exhibited significantly higher power relative to the other algorithms (Table 1). All three algorithms demonstrated a consistent increase in power with increasing DMR length (Figure 3b).
Small effect size DMRs may be expected in heterogeneous tissues such as brain and blood, where the epigenetic contribution of phenotype irrelevant cell types may dilute the observable effect size. At the lowest fold change of 0.1, BioTile identified 74% of DMRs, significantly more than that identified by the other algorithms (CHARM = 35%, Fisher’s Exact OR = 5.2, p = 7 × 10-20, TileMap = 36%, Fisher’s Exact OR = 4.9, p =7.7 × 10-19) (Table 1, Figure 3c).
Comparison of algorithms in biological datasets
Algorithm performance in biological datasets
# group 1
# group 2
# DERs returned
Proportion of validated DERs found
Proportion of validated DERs significant
The BioTile Perl application represents a simple and effective means to identify DERs in genome-scale data. BioTile out performs a number of comparable algorithms designed for the analysis of ChIP-chip data and is not confined to the analysis of a single tiling array platform. Future iterations of the algorithm may focus on the analysis of next-generation sequencing data.
Running the BioTile Perl script is simple and requires only a properly formatted data matrix file and an annotation file containing the comparison and any covariates of interest. The simplicity of BioTile is designed to increase the utility of this bioinformatics resource to the general scientific community.
Project name: BioTile
Project home page: http://psychiatry.igm.jhmi.edu/kaminsky/software.htm
Operating systems: Platform independent
Programming language: Perl
We would like to thank Peter Zandi and Lee Synkowski for their critical review of the algorithm. We would like to thank The Solomon R. & Rebecca D. Baker Foundation and the Brain and Behavior Foundation for their generous support of this research. This work was funded in part by MH093967 to TDG. All animal treatments were approved by the University of Maryland, Baltimore Animal Care and Use Committee, and were conducted in full accordance with the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
- Kaminsky Z, Wang S-C, Petronis A: Complex disease, gender and epigenetics. Ann Med 2006,38(8):530-544. 10.1080/07853890600989211View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petronis A: Human morbid genetics revisited: relevance of epigenetics. Trends Genet 2001,17(3):142-146. 10.1016/S0168-9525(00)02213-7View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mill J, Petronis A: Molecular studies of major depressive disorder: the epigenetic perspective. Mol Psychiatry 2007,12(9):799-814. 10.1038/sj.mp.4001992View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Su SC, Tsai LH: DNA methylation in cognition comes of age. Nat Neurosci 2012,15(8):1061-1062. 10.1038/nn.3169View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohamed Ariff I, Mitra A, Basu A: Epigenetic regulation of self-renewal and fate determination in neural stem cells. J Neurosci Res 2012,90(3):529-539. 10.1002/jnr.22804View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Robison AJ, Nestler EJ: Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci 2011,12(11):623-637. 10.1038/nrn3111PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gould TD, Manji HK: The molecular medicine revolution and psychiatry: bridging the gap between basic neuroscience research and clinical psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry 2004,65(5):598-604. 10.4088/JCP.v65n0502View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akbarian S: The molecular pathology of schizophrenia-Focus on histone and DNA modifications. Brain Res Bull 2009,83(3-4):103-107.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mill J, Tang T, Kaminsky Z, Khare T, Yazdanpanah S, Bouchard L, Jia P, Assadzadeh A, Flanagan J, Schumacher A: Epigenomic profiling reveals DNA-methylation changes associated with major psychosis. Am J Hum Genet 2008,82(3):696-711. 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.008PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siegmund KD, Connor CM, Campan M, Long TI, Weisenberger DJ, Biniszkiewicz D, Jaenisch R, Laird PW, Akbarian S: DNA methylation in the human cerebral cortex is dynamically regulated throughout the life span and involves differentiated neurons. PLoS One 2007,2(9):e895. 10.1371/journal.pone.0000895PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sabunciyan S, Aryee MJ, Irizarry RA, Rongione M, Webster MJ, Kaufman WE, Murakami P, Lessard A, Yolken RH, Feinberg AP: Genome-wide DNA methylation scan in major depressive disorder. PLoS One 2012,7(4):e34451. 10.1371/journal.pone.0034451PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGowan PO, Sasaki A, D’Alessio AC, Dymov S, Labonte B, Szyf M, Turecki G, Meaney MJ: Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat Neurosci 2009,12(3):342-348. 10.1038/nn.2270PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shukla S, Kavak E, Gregory M, Imashimizu M, Shutinoski B, Kashlev M, Oberdoerffer P, Sandberg R, Oberdoerffer S: CTCF-promoted RNA polymerase II pausing links DNA methylation to splicing. Nature 2011,479(7371):74-79. 10.1038/nature10442View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaminsky Z, Tochigi M, Jia P, Pal M, Mill J, Kwan A, Ioshikhes I, Vincent JB, Kennedy JL, Strauss J: A multi-tissue analysis identifies HLA complex group 9 gene methylation differences in bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2012,17(7):728-740. 10.1038/mp.2011.64View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Horak CE, Snyder M: ChIP-chip: a genomic approach for identifying transcription factor binding sites. Methods Enzymol 2002, 350: 469-483.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weber M, Davies JJ, Wittig D, Oakeley EJ, Haase M, Lam WL, Schubeler D: Chromosome-wide and promoter-specific analyses identify sites of differential DNA methylation in normal and transformed human cells. Nat Genet 2005,37(8):853-862. 10.1038/ng1598View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohn F, Weber M, Schubeler D, Roloff TC: Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). Methods Mol Biol 2009, 507: 55-64. 10.1007/978-1-59745-522-0_5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schumacher A, Kapranov P, Kaminsky Z, Flanagan J, Assadzadeh A, Yau P, Virtanen C, Winegarden N, Cheng J, Gingeras T: Microarray-based DNA methylation profiling: technology and applications. Nucleic Acids Res 2006,34(2):528-542. 10.1093/nar/gkj461PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Irizarry RA, Ladd-Acosta C, Carvalho B, Wu H, Brandenburg SA, Jeddeloh JA, Wen B, Feinberg AP: Comprehensive high-throughput arrays for relative methylation (CHARM). Genome Res 2008,18(5):780-790. 10.1101/gr.7301508PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khulan B, Thompson RF, Ye K, Fazzari MJ, Suzuki M, Stasiek E, Figueroa ME, Glass JL, Chen Q, Montagna C: Comparative isoschizomer profiling of cytosine methylation: the HELP assay. Genome Res 2006,16(8):1046-1055. 10.1101/gr.5273806PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ordway JM, Bedell JA, Citek RW, Nunberg A, Garrido A, Kendall R, Stevens JR, Cao D, Doerge RW, Korshunova Y: Comprehensive DNA methylation profiling in a human cancer genome identifies novel epigenetic targets. Carcinogenesis 2006,27(12):2409-2423. 10.1093/carcin/bgl161View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toedling J, Skylar O, Krueger T, Fischer JJ, Sperling S, Huber W: Ringo-an R/Bioconductor package for analyzing ChIP-chip readouts. BMC Bioinformatics 2007, 8: 221. 10.1186/1471-2105-8-221PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buck MJ, Nobel AB, Lieb JD: ChIPOTle: a user-friendly tool for the analysis of ChIP-chip data. Genome Biol 2005,6(11):R97. 10.1186/gb-2005-6-11-r97PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ji H, Wong WH: TileMap: create chromosomal map of tiling array hybridizations. Bioinformatics 2005,21(18):3629-3636. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti593View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scacheri PC, Crawford GE, Davis S: Statistics for ChIP-chip and DNase hypersensitivity experiments on NimbleGen arrays. Methods Enzymol 2006, 411: 270-282.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zheng M, Barrera LO, Ren B, Wu YN: ChIP-chip: data, model, and analysis. Biometrics 2007,63(3):787-796. 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2007.00768.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cochran WG: The combination of estimates from different experiments. Biometrics 1954,10(1):101-129. 10.2307/3001666View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McGowan PO, Suderman M, Sasaki A, Huang TC, Hallett M, Meaney MJ, Szyf M: Broad epigenetic signature of maternal care in the brain of adult rats. PLoS One 2011,6(2):e14739. 10.1371/journal.pone.0014739PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suderman M, McGowan PO, Sasaki A, Huang TC, Hallett MT, Meaney MJ, Turecki G, Szyf M: Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and human hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012,109(Suppl 2):17266-17272.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.